N HEALTH CARE'S SECRET DRUG CONNECTION "Tg PPSriCAL POWER OF HYP AFTER THE \A/AR: NEW SOUTH IDEOLOGY r-> A o V ARTS Anderson Gallery The Anderson Gallery hours are Tuesday-Friday, 10 ann-6 pm, and Saturday and Sunday, 1-5 pm. The gallery is closed during July and August. September 6; Opening and Reception, 8-10 pm; open to the public, September 6-29: School of the Arts Faculty Show, October 8: Opening and Reception, 8-10 pm; open to the public, October 8-November 3: New Classicism by Joan Nelson and Mark Innerst; Constructed Interiors, including Rob Womack and David Noyes; Glass Struc- tures by Jay Musler November 12-December 15: Holiday Art Market (art for sale); Larry Miller: A 15- Year Retrospective, Fur mine mfurmatiun, contact the Anaerson Gallery, 907'/> West Franklin Street. Richmond, VA 2i284- 0001; (804) 257-1522. ATHLETICS Field Hockey September 7-8: West Chester University Tournament (away) September 11 : University of Virginia (away) September 13: North Carolina- Chapel Hill (away) September 19: James Madison (away) September 21: Radford (away) September 24: Georgetown (away) September 28: Villanova (away) September 30: LaSalle (away) October 1: William and Mary (away) October 4: University of Rich- mond (away) October 9: American University (home) October 11: Northern Illinois (home) October 12-13: Pfeiffer College Tournament (away) October 17: Longwood College (away) October 22: Old Dominion (away) October 26: Towson State (away) October 27: Loyola College (away) Contact the Athletics Depart- ment for locations of home gomes. Soccer September 4: Alumni Game (home) September 11: Newport News Apprentice School (home) September 14: Old Dominion (home) September 18: University of Richmond (home) September 21 : Coppin State (home) September 25: James Madison (away) September 28-29: West Virginia and Virginia Tech (away) October 5: St. Andrews Presby- terian (away) October 12: Averett (home) October 16: Randolph-Macon (home) October 19: East Carolina (away) October 26: Radford (away) October 29: Mary Washington (away) All home games are held at the Cory Street Recreation Complex. Volleyball September 10: Liberty Baptist (home) September 13-14: George Washington University Invitational (away) September 17: William and Mary (home) September 18: Western Ken- tucky (home) September 20-21: George Mason University Invitational (away) September 24: University of Virginia (home) September 26: James Madison (home) September 27-29: Wake Forest University Tournament (away) October 2: Howard University (home) October 5-6: USA, Tournament (away) October 8: George Mason (away) October 11-12: Villanova Tourna- ment (away) October 16: Howard University (away) October 18-19: Delaware Tournament (away) October 23: William and Mary (away) October 26: James Madison University Tournament (away) October 30: Radford (home) All home games are held at the Franklin Street Gym, Firr tickets and mure infurmutiun ahttut fall sl)irrts, ciinlacl the Athletics De(>artment, H19 West FrunUm Street. Richmimd, VA 23284-0001; (804) 257-1 RAM. ELDERHOSTEL VCU hosts one-week, summer residential learning experiences through Elderhostel, a nonprofit educational organization for persons 60 years and older Elderliostel at VCU is supported by the Virginia Center on Aging, July 7-12: The following seminars will be offered: The History of Medical Advances; Preventive Medicine; and Nutrition: Meta- bolic Music-Calories in Concert, The fee for the one- week pro- gram is $195 and includes lodging on the MCV Campus, meals, and all activities. For more information, contact the program coordinator of Elderhos- tel in the Virginia Center on Aging, Box 229, Richmond, VA 23298-0001; (804) 786-1525. MANAGEMENT CENTER August 1-2: 14th Annual Confer- ence on Managing the School of Business. Course fee is S1 15 per person; conference is held at the Richmond Hyatt House. August 5-7: Organization and Management of a Preventive Maintenance Program. Course fee is S545 per person; seminar is held in the School of Business. October 20-23: 19th Virginia Economic Education Conference for Clergy, sponsored by the School of Business and the Management Center in cooper- ation with Economic Education for Clergy, Virginia Council on Economic Education, Fur mure mjuTmatiun ahuut these and uther scmmurs. cuntact the Manaf^e- ment Center. Schuiil uf Business, 1015 Fluyd Avenue. Richmimd. VA 23284- 0001: (804) 257-1279, MEDICAL INTERNATIONAL STUDIES The international continuing medical education series is sponsored by the Office of Continuing Medical Education in the School of Medicine and meets the criteria for Category 1 continuing medical education credits by the American Medical Association, Summer and fall trips include the following: July 26-August 11, September 6-22, October 4-20, October 11-27: China, Each trip costs $2,795 per person. August 9-23, September 20- October 4, October 18-No- vember 1, October 25-Novem- ber 8: Italy. Each trip costs $1,695 per person, September 15-22 and Septem- ber 22-29: London, Each trip costs $1 ,079 per person, September 20-29, October 4- 13, October 11-20: Paris/Monte Carlo, Each trip costs $1 ,479 per person. For more in/oTrntition, contticr the Office uf Cuntmum^ Medical Educa- turn, Scho(^/ (j/ Mctitcinc, Bft.x 48, Richmimd. VA 23298-0001; (804) 786-0434- MUSIC 1985-86 Terrace Concert Series All concerts are held at the VCU Performing Arts Center, 922 Park Avenue, 8 pm. The Terrace Concert Series is sponsored by the Department of Music, School of the Arts, and the John F. Kennedy Center for the Perform- ing Arts, The series is supported by the CSX Corporation, October 5: The Manchester Music Festival String Orchestra November 13: The Kalichstein/ Laredo/Robinson Trio Fur tickets and mure infurmatiun about these and uther concerts, contact the Department of Music, Sc/i(jo/ uf the Arts, 922 Park Avenue, Richmimd, VA 23284-0001; (804)257-6046. NONCREDIT COURSES History and Culture Series The College of Humanities and Sciences, in conjunction with the Office of Summer Studies, has organized a series of short courses on the history and culture of the Richmond area. The cost is $61 per course; the schedule for the remainder of the summer includes the following: July 1-15: Man, Nature, and the James River July 8-12: Black Neighborhoods in Richmond July 8-12: Racial Politics in Richmond July 15-19: Richmond Women in Virginia History July 15-19: Richmond's Writers Fin mine infinmation, contact the Office uf Summer Studies, 90/ West FrunWm Street, Richmomi. VA 23284- 0001; (804) 257-0200, M A G A Z 1 N E Volume 14, Number 1 Summer 1985 A publication for alumni and friends of Virginia Commonwealth University Elaine Jones, editor Scott Wrigtit, art director David Mathis, director of VCU Publications Dennis MlVVuCc'ts. VCU PUBUCATIONS 84-85 Limited Edition Discourse 2 Program Chronicle 4 Substance abuse among 6 health care professionals Physician, heal thyself. This has acquired new meaning for those in the health care professions who have begun taking an earnest, albeit cautious, look at a problem they could rightly coll their own occupational hazard. After the war: New South 12 ideology An education professor traces the beginnings of today's Rich- mond Technical Center, the Virginia IVIechanics' Institute, which played an important role in bringing industrialism to the post-Civil War agrarian South. The practical power of 16 hypnosis Gone are the popular scenarios of the swinging watch, the unsuspecting victim barking at trees, or the patient completely in the power of the hypnotist, Hypnoanalysis is serious, therapeutic treatment for an array of human afflictions, from the cigarette smoking habit to complex mental illness. University in the News 20 Research Exchange 24 Newsmakers 25 Letters Alumni Update 27 28 Located in Virginia's capital city, Richmond, Virginia Common- wealth University traces its founding date to 1838, Today, VCU is an urban, public univer- sity enrolling nearly 20,000 students on the Academic and Medical College of Virginia Campuses. VCU tVlagazine is produced three times a year by VCU Publications. The opinions expressed in VCU Magazine are those of the author and not necessarily those of VCU. Copyright © 1985 by Virginia Commonwealth University. An Equal Opportunily/Affirmative Action University M O SPEAKING HITECH WITH NEW HEART By Paul Woody 11 our lives, we've been told to say what we mean. We've been told to speak straight from our hearts, asked to have heart-to- heart talks, en- couraged to have a change of heart, suffered heartaches, and let's not even try to count the times we've broken our poor mother's heart. All our lives, we've had a fairly clear picture of what someone meant when the heart was mentioned. Until now. They're doing amazing things with hearts these days — transplanting them, creating them, taking them from ba- boons and putting them in humans. Someday, they may even find a way to take a human heart and transplant it into a baboon. Now, that would be progress. But there are some problems that have nothing to do with a body's immune system rejecting the new organ. We're talking language here. We're talking from the bottom of our hearts. We're talking a heartfelt need to clarify some heart-rending problems. Being understood is no simple matter these days. English is still our native language, but the way it's sometimes used, you have to wonder what's going on. Now, heart transplants threaten to add a new dialect to our language. Even the most casual conversation could become a miniature Tower of Babel. Unlearn' d, he knew no schoolman's subtle art, No language but the language of the heart. Epistle of Dr. Arbuthnof. Prologue to the Satires. Alexander Pope Imagine this. Bored beyond belief at a party, you approach the mixed nut dish and begin picking out the cashews. While you're pushing aside a Brazil nut, a person you've never seen before ap- pears next to you. You notice a dab of dip at the corner of his mouth, you're slightly repulsed, and anyway, you can't find any more cashews and want to move closer to the cocktail franks. Then, the person says, "Sometimes at parties like this 1 get so excited about meeting new people that my heart skips a beat." You freeze. What now? You don't want to mess with this guy, but you feel an obligation to a fellow human being, no matter what residue is clinging to his face. You're aware it's not an unrealistic possibility that this person has an artifi- cial heart. Face it, one day artificial hearts are going to be even more popular than Nehru jackets, and stay in style longer as well. Imagine the thoughts that will flood your mind when you learn this person has a skipping heart. Surely, an artificial heart shouldn't be skipping a beat. Maybe it needs some finetuning. Maybe it has been recalled by the manufacturer, and this person never got the letter informing him of that. What should you do.' Should you excuse yourself for a moment and call for an ambulance? Or do you stand there nervously, hoping the person is just a dullard who speaks in cliches and is not on the verge of falling face first into the punch bowl? Suddenly, you're on edge. And to top it off^, some insensitive louse has sta- tioned himself next to the cocktail franks, inhaling them in a fine imitation of a vacuum cleaner. Imagine the strain this is going to put on your conversa- tion. Do you smile benignly and keep mumbling the rescue squad number to yourself? Can you remember what the American Heart Association published in a brochure on how to handle this situation? Finally, when the pressure is immense, you say, "I apologize if I seem distant. My heart won't take this kind of talk." And your new friend says, "I'm sorry. I didn't realize you had an artificial heart." That's confusing enough. But just think what can happen in more formal conversations. How, for example, can anyone expect to pass a final exam in a literature course if one can't understand what's being discussed in class (after all, who has time to read all those books)? "Fool!" said my muse to me, "look in thy heart, and write." Astrophel and Stella Sir Philip Sidney While new hearts give life, their existence may be the death of some great works of literature — and some not so great works of literature, for that matter. Suppose you're in a class studying Don Quixote. The point is made that Cer- vantes says Don had "a soul of fibre and a heart of oak." Right away, you've got trouble. Someone who doesn't much care for Cervantes or Don Quixote in the first place is going to seize the oppor- tunity to vent a little frustration here (besides, it's not good for your heart to repress your emotions). "I may not know all there is to know about literature," this malcontent will say, "but I do read the newspapers. And I know no one ever had a heart of wood. Plastic and metal, yes. Wood, no. I see no need studying a work ot literature that has no connection to the world in which we must function once we leave this classroom." Let's hope the class doesn't read Cervantes' The Little Gyps)! where we find that, "My heart it was moulded as she pleases, but enduring as marble to retain." Or what about one ot the stories everyone reads as an adolescent: Edgar Allan Poe's "The Tell Tale Heart." Kids who had no interest in reading devour Poe, because finally they've discovered the forerunner of the Texas Chain Saw Massacre. But Poe might end up on the endan- gered species list. No teenager who has seen his or her share of newsbreaks between favorite television shows is going to believe, as Poe's murderer tries to tell us, that there's something strange about burying a heart under the floor- boards. Today's teenager probably ex- pects everyone to have a spare heart somewhere in the house. M}i peace is gone, M}i heart is heavy. Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe Maybe all of this doesn't concern you because you put freshman composition behind you long ago, and you lost interest in Poe soon after you discovered Harold Robbins. Fine. But that doesn't eliminate the problem. Let's say you hunger for culture and the nightly dose of "Hogan's Heroes" you get on cable television just isn't satisfying your crav- ing. Finally, you find a Shakespeare production in town. You decide to take in Othello at the local playhouse. Let's face it, Shakespeare ain't no Neil Simon. The Bard can be hard to follow. The actors sound as it they're speaking English, hut you're just not sure all the time. You've got to work to keep up with what's going on. In Act I, Othello says, "1 will wear my heart upon my sleeve." And the guy in the row behind you leans over to whisper to a companion several seats down, "Merv Lettucebinder got fitted for one of those new artificial hearts the other day. The doctor told him he could wear it anywhere he wanted, so Merv called me to ask where he should put it to get the lowest insur- ance rate. "I wasn't sure how to answer him. 'Merv,' I said, 'I think the doctor meant you could wear it in the shower or to parties or to business meetings or with any of your suits, and not have to worry about it standing out or clashing with your tie.' But if this Othello guy is going to wear his on his sleeve, maybe I told Merv the wrong thing." These questions take your mind away from Shakespeare and your night of culture is wasted. You begin to think of all the times that day you said something pertaining to the heart. Remember the waiter who spilled a cup of coftee in your lap at lunch? Remember what you said when a colleague saw you leave a gener- ous tip? "He tried hard. His heart was in the right place." How can you be sure anymore? But all this may be trivial. The one thing people do more than anything else with their hearts is fall in love. You gave me the key to your heart, my love Then why do you make me knock? ''Oh, that was yesterday; Saints above. Last night, 1 changed the lock!" Constancy John Boyle OVeilly Consider for a moment what has been said in the more romantic moments of your life. Did you ever "give" your heart to another? If someone gives you his or her heart now, you could end up being forced to display, in a prominent place in your home, a rather unattractive organ in a jar filled with alcohol. Ro- mance may never be the same. Just he glad you're not in the Valentine card business. It may be unnecessary to love some- one "with all your heart." Now, men and women can say, "I loved you with all my first heart, hut ever since I got my artificial heart, I find I'm attracted to department store mannequins." And, when romances fall apart, think of some of the things that are going to be said — "I was a fool to think 1 could ever love someone who has the heart of a baboon." Ouch. If that breaks your heart, remember, you can always get a new one. And while we're on the topic of breaking hearts, who can ever forget the heartbreak of psoriasis? That's going to be nothing compared to some of the heartstoppers that might one day appear on our television screens. Envision a commercial break where a husband and wife get on an airplane after spending a week in San Francisco. The man looks into his briefcase and then panic spreads across his face. He leans over to his wife and says, "I forgot my spare heart." Suddenly, the whole cabin erupts in the song, "He left his heart in San Francisco, high on a hill, where little cable cars run." Then, a man wearing a trench coat and a gray fedora appears on the screen. "Only one company can provide you with a spare heart and guarantee to replace it anywhere in the world. Don't leave home without it." Perhaps, we can still get a case of heartburn from watch- ing such commercials. But it's still nothing compared to the difficulties Othello had with his heart. Remember when he was wearing it on his sleeve? Well, by Act IV, things have gotten worse. Othello says, "My heart is turn'd to stone; I strike it and it hurts my hand." He needs a cardiologist and a physical therapist. Now there's a man with problems. That really pulls at your heart- strings — whatever that means nowadays. C5 Paul Woody (B. A. English, 1975; MA. 1982) is a sports uniter for The Richmond News Leader. For many years, he believed the first successfid heart transplant was performed on the Tin Man by the Wizard ofOz. c o UVl c REVISING THE RULES: LESSONS OF BABY FAE By Laurel Bennett t was an operation that was so dra- matic and innova- tive that it de- manded an immediate re- sponse. And it did — from the medical commu- nity, ethicists, animal rights groups, the press, and the public. The operation that has inspired so much awe, ire, and controversy was last October's implantation of a baboon's heart mto the infant known to the world as Baby Fae. And the wide-ranging implications of this cross-species trans- plant has once again raised some striking questions that physicians, scientists, lawyers, theologians, and lay people alike can no longer put off into some indeterminate bioethical future. The questions that surround Baby Fae in particular, and body-altering experi- ments such as genetic engineering in general, have increased society's aware- ness for the need to come to grips with some profound moral, ethical, and legal considerations. At VCU and MCV Hospitals, ethics committees already in place are very much involved in discussing, formulat- ing, and teaching principles on such complex medical issues. With a successful heart and organ transplant program at the hospitals, as well as VCU's educational courses stressing the moral and ethical issues of modern medicine, several members of the university's ethics committees were open and candid in talking about their fundamental objections and defense of the ethical issues surrounding the Baby Fae case. In fact, within two weeks of Loma Linda University's bold surgical effort. the MCV Hospitals' ethics committee, under the chairmanship ot Dr. Edwin Myer, chairman and associate professcir of child neurology, met to assess some ot the ethical considerations of the inter- species possibilities. "Basically," Myer said, "the innovation of using a baboon heart in a human did not raise any moral issue with us. After all," he said, "animal kidney transplants in humans have been performed since the 1960s and various animal tissues and parts, such as pig valves used in by-pass heart surgery, are implanted routinely every day." But one of the questions the committee members did have, explained Myer, was why the surgical team did not apparently make an appropriate search for a human heart. "It doesn't make sense," he said, "to use an animal heart if a human heart was available." In discussing this point, Myer's group touched on one of the numerous and critical questions that have been scrutinized since the operation was announced. And while a discussion of this issue may be academic since the hospitals are not considering interspecies transplants, Myer sees some basic ethical parallels in the case of Baby Fae with the kinds ot decisions that go on every day in the hospitals. The hospitals' ethics committee, founded in November 1983, includes five medical doctors, one hospital ad- ministrator, and one registered nurse. Experts outside the medical profession are frequently on call when a particular case warrants their expertise. Though the committee was not formed to be an acute, 24-hour decision-making body (that is, explained Myer, a group "hav- ing to decide on a Friday afternoon whether or not a particular treatment keeping someone alive should or should not be terminated"), it does function to "examine and discuss general ethical philosophies and principles." In addi- tion, the group often acts in a consulting role as advisor to doctors and patients during times when critical decisions need to be made. Periodically, ethics grand rounds are conducted with up to 150 participants, and cases are presented using the advice of a lawyer, a profes- sional ethicist, or theologians. Myer cited two recent cases that he believes touch on some of the same basic issues raised in the Baby Fae case. The first focused on the dilemma of keeping alive a newborn that had an insufficient bowel system to support life. The ques- tions Myer's group faced were who was responsible for the $l,000-a-day cost of the intravenous feeding that would be necessary for the ten years or more to sustain life? — and often in such cases, the question of the quality of the infant's future — was it enhanced by prolonging life, no matter what? The second case concerned the issue of whether a man on death row could refuse to have his doctor's recommended by-pass surgery to save his life. Was the man legally competent to make an informed decision? Similar questions have also been part of the Baby Fae controversy. But the issue of informed consent has been an overriding one. Myer thinks that the "key to any controversial therapy or experiment in humans is one of in- formed consent." Dr. Robert Redmon, chairman of the Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies and head of VCU's Committee on Ethics and Health, agrees with Myer that informed consent is a crucial ethical consideration. This kind ot issue and other medical questions are discussed during his committee meetings. With faculty representation from philosophy, patient counseling, genetics, dentistry, medicine, nursing, and pharmaceutics, Redmon's group focuses on the develop- ment of courses and other programs in ethics. In the four years since its found- ing, the committee acts to advise Red- men, who teaches ethics, on curricula that address such issues as the rights of patients, who should he eligihle tor a new hut limited wonder drug, and how to confront a nurse or doctor who might have a drinking or drug problem. In addition, the committee has ar- ranged for the popular series of hioethic colloquia given at lunchtime on the MCV Campus. When addressing such an issue as informed consent, Redmon believes that before a truly informed decision can be made in any experimental procedure, including the Baby Fae or the artificial heart cases, certain ethical criteria can be structured that will help to solve the dilemma of when to say yes and when to say no. He explained that a typical set of ctiteria might look like this: the first questit>n would be, How much scientific knowledge has been obtained from prior animal or other kinds ot research before proceeding to human experimenta- tion? Such consideration might also involve the issue of whether it is worth directing large amounts of money to certain kinds of research for an answer. The second question would involve whether the experimental procedure was the best available treatment. This issue also speaks to the very sensitive subject of whether an institution's or a particular doctor's interest supersedes the interests of the patient. The third question would be the issue of informed consent from the patient. If the patient is under age or declared legally incompetent, then who is compe- tent to speak on his or her behalf? Much of the debate surrounding the Baby Fae case can be looked at in terms of Redmon's criteria. In the first, concetning the amount ot adequate scientific background, critics have argued that there wasn't enough data to warrant interspecies transplant in Baby Fae. They say that although Dr. Bailey (head of the Loma Linda team) had done seven years of cross-species research on goats, sheep, wolves, and dogs, much more attention needed to be given to highet primate testing, which would have produced better data. In addition, they point out that nothing very new was learned about the immune system's rejection of the baboon heart since all previous attempts to use pri- mate organs in humans have failed just because ot this phenomenon. Proponents argue that the new antire- jection drug for the immune system offered better hope than previous at- tempts and that risks on humans must be taken at some point since society grants to the future some medical mandates. Assessing the second criterion, wheth- er the baboon heart was the best treat- ment, opponents say no. And most advocates agree that using a human heart would have been the procedure ot choice. As it turns out, it appears that the Loma Linda team had not searched for a human heart. Given this informa- tion, the issue then became whether the operation was in the best interest ot Baby Fae. The debate continues, but Myer said that in an academic institu- tion, such as MCV Hospitals, "the check and balance system is vety thor- ough. There is peer, chairman, dean, and the ethics committee review that protects and controls all aspects ot any radical procedure." The third criterion, informed consent, is still a matter of controversy. Critics charge that given the fact a human heart had not been considered, it was not possible for the infant's parents to be adequately informed as to the best treatment, and hence, they were unable to give a truly informed consent. Propo- nents say that given the use ot the baboon heart as the procedure to be used, the doctors would have taken every precaution, to the best ot their ability, to ensure as much intormatit)n as possible was available to the parents. Redmon thinks a good way to mini- mize the consent problem is to "make a clear distinction between consenting adults such as artificial heart patient William Schroeder, who volunteered for his operation, and infants like Baby Fae, who did not. In other words," he said, "avoid nontherapeutic experiments on infants and children who cannot speak for themselves." As the controversy continues over the baboon heart transplant, other people are looking toward the future ot genetic alteration. Such bodyshop or brave-new-world situations have ^purred ethic ists like Redmon to encourage debates on whete society is going to draw the line. He maintains that there are clear distinctions between gene therapy tor health reasons and genetic manipulation for added features — distinctions which have to be "carefully weighed beginning today. Any attempts," he said, "to create an altered human, such as astronauts without legs to fit into tight spaces or people with gills to work under water, is simply out ot the question. The line must be drawn be- tween restoring health and human enhancement." Redmon believes that both organ transplants and genetic engineering are issues which are encouraging a greatet number of people and institutions to look to ethics committees as the place to start the debate. "These committees are vital and impottant. Ethics are more than feelings or good sense. They are rationales, principles, and philosophies. We must use them so that no one person or group can ever have a free hand." CJ Laurel Bennett n a freelance turner m the Richmond area. Illustration b\ Scott Wright. SUBSTANCE ABUSE AMONG HEAETHCARE PROFESSIONALS By Anthony J. DeLellis and Ronald O. Forbes The names and back^ounds of the two patients whose cases are presented in this article are fictitious. To protect patient privacy, we created cases from actual histories that illustrate typical backgrounds and substance -related impairment and treatment patterns. We felt this measure necessary because the health care profes- sions constitute a small community. In such a community, providing even cursory information about real people might en- courage speculatum about their identities. B51 using fictitious but typical backgrounds and impairment patterns, the illustrative value of the cases is maintained while speculation about their identity is impossible. ependency on and addiction to drugs and alcohol, or "substance abuse," constitutes one of the major health problems in the United States. Ironically, the people who provide health care have an exceptionally high incidence ot sub- stance abuse. Pharmacists, dentists, nurses, physi- cians, and others in health care are at a high risk of becoming substance abusers when compared to the rest of the U.S. population. However, assessing the extent of the problem has proven excep- tionally difficult. In 1984, Dr. Herbert Kleber, a psy- chiatrist at Yale University, reported that between 10 and 15 percent of the nation's physicians appeared to have an addiction to drugs, alcohol, or both. Twenty years earlier, however. The American Journal of Psychiatry was al- ready citing estimates that suggested narcotics addiction among physicians was 30 to 100 times greater than among the general population. The authors, Herbert C. Modlin and Alberto Montes, called it an "occupational hazard." As with physicians, the scope of the problem among nurses is difficult to measure. Marjtirie A. Barr and William D. Lerner of the MCV Htispitals used demographic data and other reports to deduce that 10,000 nurses were either suspended or placed on probation by state regulatory boards every ten years because of substance abuse impairment. They also cited an earlier study that estimated the existence of approximately 40,000 alcoholic nurses in the U.S. Realizing that alcoholism is but one of the many substance abuse disorders, we concluded that nurses' problems with substance abuse are, to say the least, notable. Equal attention is now being given to dentists and pharmacists. Though the incidence of substance abuse disorders among dentists may be no less a problem than for other health care professionals, the extent of the problem again is hard to gauge. A staff article in a 1982 issue of the journal of the American Dental Association, which employed a decidedly conservative approach to its calcula- tions, concluded that 10 percent or about 9,000 dentists nationwide are alcoholic. The authors then speculated that the actual percentage and number of alcohol-impaired dentists probably far exceeded the figures given. With other drugs taken into account, dentists may have a high rate of dependency as do others in health care, though no one can be certain. In 1982, Svetlana Lerner suggested that alcoholism represented the "single largest cause of impairment and disabil- ity within the pharmacy profession." Estimates on the extent of substance abuse amt)ng pharmacists, she noted, resembled those for physicians and nurses. However, the author found no specific figures published on either alcohol or drug impairment among pharmacists. The paucity of data, alone, raises hard questions. Why does so little substantive Illlllttttll' \ / information exist in fields known for precise measurement, for epidemiologi- cal inquiry, for sophisticated levels of professional association? And why are health care professionals more prone, as the data available seem to suggest, to develop substance abuse disorders than are those in the general population? Even the most meager of figures raises a formidable issue. Those wht) treat substance abuse disorders have begun to ascertain some of the factors that may account for the rate of impairment in the health professions. The rigors of professional schooling are offered as one factor. The average medical student today may spend 50-55 hours per week in classroom, clinical, and study situations, in addition to weekend hours. Other possible factors include the pressure and long hours of practice, and the personal consequences of such a lifestyle. The average physician in private practice may work 55 hours per week. Many physicians work far more. The possession of certain personality traits may also explain why some health care professionals are at higher than average risk of developing the disorder. Thomas G. Webster, in The Impaired Physician, cites personality as one of many factors, noting that certain char- acteristics may have been present in individuals considering health care as a career before they entered professional training. Regardless of such factors — some of which many professions share — a major consideration in explaining the rate of substance abuse m health care profes- sions is simply contact with the drugs. As with many diseases, the probability of developing a substance abuse disorder increases with accessibility to the drugs of potential abuse. Gerald P. Johnson, in his article "Case History: Dangers of Self-Prescription," suggested that con- tinuous contact with drugs was a crucial factor in explaining the difference in the rate of substance abuse disorders between health care professionals and others. Use of drugs may have begun as a form of recreation or been the result of self- ' prescription for pain or illness. But regardless of initial motives for use, continued exposure is considered a key condition leading to ultimate impairment. The stigma the profession has at- tached to its own impaired colleagues may help account for the lack of hard data and has been a stumbling block to specialists in the field of substance abuse medicine. Despite developments in treatment, many impaired health care professionals are afraid to come forth, anticipating being ostracized by their associates if their problem were known. While many impaired health care profes- sionals are reluctant to disclose their problem, colleagues may avoid confront- ing other colleagues who display obvious symptoms of substance impairment. Commenting on this reluctance in the Journal of the American Medical Associa- tion, Roland E. Herrington and George R. Jacobson stated, "We do our patients, our professions, and our troubled col- leagues no favor by pretending not to see that which is so prevalent today." James Shafer, a general practice physi- cian, was 37 years old when he contacted a psychiatrist for consultation. At the time of the first phime cimtact, he stated that he was having problems with his busy practice and needed help m making a career decisum. Although he reported problems with anxiety and difficulty sleeping at times, he felt these symptoms were temporary and manageable. An appointment was made for him to be seen a few days later. When he was first seen, he seemed older than his stated age; he also was anxious and somewhat tremulous. He reported having spent most of the previous evening in the emergency room of his hospital taking care of a woman with a difficult pregnancy. With some pride, he described m great detail the successful management of his patient. He then discussed the many rewards of his career in medicine, the greatest for him being the appreciation expressed by individ- mil patients and the community as a whole. He hoped he would eventually find a practice that would provide such rewards while allowing him more time to develop and pursue his personal interests. Currently, be- cause he was one oj only a jew physicians in his rural Virginia town, he rarely had a day that he did not see patients in his office or in the hospital. In fact, James had not spent a weekend away from his practice during the six months prior to his coiisultation. He attended college and medical school in the Northeast. Although he had some academic difficulties during medical school, he had been accepted for a general surgery residency at the same school. But he was dropped from the program after two years because of what he described as "marital and persorw.1 problems." He felt his dismis- sal was unfair, noting that prior to his marital separation and subsequent divorce, he worked "harder and hmger" than any of the other trainees. He moved to the Southwest where he worked as a civil service physician on a military base. Again, after a few years, "persimality problems" arose between himself and hospital administrators. He believed the major conflict in that positum was his nimmilitary siatiis and, thus, difficulties in communicating with his supervisors. When asked for details, he stated he was asked to resign because on a few occasions, he failed to respond or was not at home on weekends when he thought he was not officially on call. He denied that emotional difficulties were related to either of his forced moves, other than frustrations around his financial situation and a feeling of not being understood by his coworkers. He then came to Virginia and joined two older physicians in his present practice. He was quite happy for several years and apparently did well in his work and in his personal life. He became active in his regional medical society and other commu- nity activities and had an active social life. He remained single during this time. He was known as an avid sportsman by his peers, and he developed an interest in local folk art and gourmet cooking. Although seen as somewhat of an eccentric by many of his patients, he could be depended on to respimd to any crisis or emergency. James reported that life had changed over the previous two years. Because of an increase m his clinical respimsibilities as his partners aged, he was not able to participate as often in his usual leisure-time activities. More of his time was spent taking calls either at home or in the hospital's emergency room. Occasionally, over the last year, he had made mistakes in his written orders or treatment plans because of chronic fatigue. But he said his nurse found them to be minor and usually corrected them fin him. In an attempt to conserve his lime and I energy, he increasingly managed patients' night-time problems from home by phone rather than making the 12 -mile trip to the hospital. First the hospital, then the medical society, questi(med some of his practices, but neither made an official reprimand or took other actiim. It was this pressure that was causing his current anxiety, leading him to cimsider a career change in the near future. When asked about eating and drinking habits, he described himself as a social drinker with erratic eating habits. He based this behavior on his single status, noting that he usually ate ahme after cooking for himself. With probing, he reported that he was drinking a little more than he was accustomed to doing in the past. In resp<mse to more specific questums, he staled that he occasionally had a few drinks in the morn- ing to help him get to sleep after hiiving been up all night. He usually did not drink while on duty uniess he did not expect any further calls m the evening. He woidd usually hiwe wine with his meals and drank sherry through the evening while reading or watch- ing movies on television. He often drank too much when he went out unth friends or had visitors. He /e(t it was his work habits, rather than his drinking habits, that led to his current social situation, but he was able to admit that he was somewhat abrasive when drinking and had alienated more than a few of his friends. James demed that drinking was negatively affecting his work; rather, his use of alcohol was a positive factor in his being able to "switch gears" as he was called on to do so often. He also felt it was an appropriate way "to keep fr<m\ carrying too many people around on my back. The evident denial in this case pre- vails throughout the pri)fessit)n. Learn- ing the extent of the problem is crucial to coming up with a comprehensive plan to ameliorate it, and an interprofessional research effort must he undertaken. In the meantime, help is available tor impaired health care professionals. It is patently clear that such individuals, once involved in treatment, respond well to therapy. For health care profes- sionals (as tor all others), substance abuse is usually chronic with patterns of relapse. However, the chairman of the American Medical Association's Im- paired Physicians Advisory Committee has observed, "The great majority of physicians who complete rehabilitation programs can successfully return to the practice of medicine." Clinical observations at the MCV Hospitals Division of Substance Abuse Medicine bear out this assessment, not only for physicians but tor nurses, phar- macists, and others in health care. The problem of substance abuse, which is extensive and particularly troublesome for members of this unique population, requires research, but help for the prob- lem is currently available. A counselor from a local substance abuse counseling program referred a 29 -year -old nurse for outpatient therapy. Barbara Green was then in her second week of inpatient substance abuse treatment. She and her counselor were looking for an alternative to residential treatment that would provide support and therapeutic guidance. It was decided her treatment would include weekly psychotherapy with random monitoring by drug screening tests. Barbara gave a history of using alcohol, manfiuina, and "pills" occasionally during high school and early in college. At that time she realized that her drug use, while not problematic for her, was incompatible with maintaining excellent grades. She stopped using the drugs with no difficidty and drank alcohol (mly once or twice a mimth. She completed nursing school near the top of her class and was hired by a major medical center as an intensife care nurse. She fournl her job exceedingly stressftd but always exciting and challenging. She demmstrated a high degree of technical skill in the management of critically ill patients and was known for her "cool head" m the midst of a crisis. As a result of her perform- ance on this job, she ivas mimed Nurse of the Year by the department. Barbara developed many relationships during her first years out of nursing school. With more leisure time and sigr-iificantly more discretumary income, she began recreational use of cocaine with her room- mate and other friends a few times each month. She felt the time spent with friends was crucial to maintaining balance in her life. "After watching so many of our patients go, I have to live it up to keep my sanity." She rationalized that in the begin- ning of her cocaine use, she never had problems with the drug or her behavioral response to it. She admitted, however, that her credit rating went down because of tu>o closed bank card accounts and arrears on other bills, but she did not see these prob- lems as drug reLited. At times, when she had to work after a night of heavy cocaine use, she would take one or two Valium tablets to calm herself and improve her c(jncentration. She nei'er differentiated between this medicine and the aspirins or antacids that she and other members of the ward staff would take from the medication cart; in fact, many saw this medication as .somewhat a benefit of the job. Although others found her irritable on such days, they always rationalized her mood as a response to the heavy load she and the other nurses carried. No (me at work suspected that her mood swings were related to psychoactive drug use, nor did anyone fault her for losing her temper occasionally with coworkers. What was noticed was a significant detenoratiim in her patient care style. In her first years on the unit, Barbara had spent the majority of her time providing supportive and empathetic bedside care. This changed as she progressed and took on additiottal administrative responsibilities. Increasingly, she distanced herself from patients. Most of her working hours were spent with schedul- ing, recordkeeping, charting patient data, rei'ising regulations, and attending hospital committee meetings. She complained of missing the "personal side of nursing" but often was abrupt and hostile when called on to work outside the intensii'e care unit with less critically ill patients. "I found that I had fallen out of love with patients and could barely tolerate spending eight hours with them." When she ivas 27 years old. Barbara injured her knee while skiing. She returned to work after a week, although at times she experienced a great deal of pain. She felt she could not afford to be out of work: h\ this time, her financial sitiuuiim was dismal. She also was plagued with headaches that would occur late in her shifts at work, and her use of minor tranquilizers became the rule rather than the exception. In addition, she began to use increasing amounts of ruircotic analgesic medications to control pain. She usiuilly was able to gel prescriptions for medications from physicians ivorkmg with her. They knew of the daily pressures she faced and empathized with her as she tried to mann.ge her life. On one occasion she visited her hospital's employee health office, where she was seen by the nurse, given a prescription for an analgesic available over-the-counter, and encouraged to consider a less stressful job. She decided to give up her supervisory position in intensive care and transferred to the hospital's emergency room. One year prior to being referred for psychotherapy, Barbara had become depen- dent on both Demerol (a potent narcotic analgesic) and Valium. She found that when she could not get the medicines, she became anxious, could not sleep or eat well, and had poor concentration. B;y this time, those around her noticed changes in her appear- ance and behavior, but no (me felt compe- tent to confront or counsel her. Barbara herself recognized that life was unmanage- able and that she had to discontinue the use of the medications. She tried to taper her daily dosage but became even more uncomfortable. She asked for and was granted a leave of absence. Her supervisor told her they all hoped she would return as her old self. But she worried that she might not be able to stop the drug use completely. Not wanting to let others know how much she was now taking, Barbara began writing prescriptions for the medicati(ms herself, forging the name of one of the emergency room physicians. Several days into her leave, her room- mate found her in their apartment sedated and somewhat c(mfused. Apparently, she had either had a seizure or taken an over- dose of medications. She was taken to another hospital, where she was cimfused and disoriented, but otherwise stable. After a brief period of observatum, she was released. She was encouraged to have a psychiatric evaluation but refused. The day after this incident, Bar/Lara's hospital administrator and supervisor came to her apartment. They ccmfronted her with the forged prescriptions and told her oj their responsibility to report the incident to the state nursing and pharmacy boards. They also told her that legal charges could be brought against her. They brought with them the names of the head of the nursing board's Impaired Nurse Committee and a physician who specialized in tfie treatment of sub- stance abuse disorders. With their strong encouragement, she decided to contact the physician, who then arranged for her admission to residential treatment. After a period of detoxification, Barbara felt less anxious and could see improvement in her concentration. As her thinking cleared, though, she became quite depressed. She realized the seriousness of her situation, especially in regard to the widespread effects of her drug use on all aspects of her life. She was gratified by the support of her supervi- sor, who assured her that a position would be found for her when she was ready to return to work. During the next year, Barbara went weekly for supportive psychotherapy and substance abuse counseling. She used her intelligence and problem- solving abilities to work collaboratively with the therapists on several important areas of her life. The first difficult task was a decision not to return to nursing too soon because of the obvious risks the profession had presented in the past. She knew it would be difficult to support herself outside the health care field but felt It would be eqiuilly difficult to abstain from drugs if she placed herself back under the pressures that had led to her impairment. Because of her education and experience, she was able to get a job as a laboratory technician and supplement her salary with temporary, part-time clerical work. She made plans and a schedule to bring her finances under control and learned to accept a slightly lower standard of lii'ing. just as she began to pull out of her despair and regain a sense of hope, she was officially infinmed by the state licensing board that her license had been suspended for SIX months. A hearing was scheduled several mimths Liter to determine her readiness to return to nursing. Depression returned briefly, but she cimtinued to work on her recovery and improve the quality of her life. She found new leisure-time activi- ties that provided her opportunities to develop new relationships away from her job. She also began taking graduate courses outside nursing and cimsidered pursuing a degree in another field. She was able to see that she had expected too much from her professum. Now that she was not overly invested in nursing on an emotiimal level, she could better delineate the reastms for her career choice and renew that choice. She made returning tr) nursing a specific goal of treatment and abstinence from drugs and ccmtinued involt'emeni in counseling the means of achieving that goal. Barbara did well as the year progressed. She remained drug free and enjoyed excel- lent performance on her jobs. After the bi)ard hearing, she was given permissum to resume her nursing career under the condi- tion that she continue counseling and abstain from drugs. Eight months into treatment, she went back to nursing on a part-time basis while continuing her weekly counseling sessions. She was able to look anew at the issues raised by her return to bedside nursing and how her feelings, especially those of dependency and auton- omy, at times made her job difficult. As she gained insight into these problems, she became more effective in dealing with her patients and communicating with coworkers and friends. She was eventually able to resume nursing on a full-time basis. She discontinued individual counseling after one year and joined a mutiud support group, which included am(mg its members several other recovering health care professionals. She regained her full licensure after an additional year in counseling and continued to do well, never returning to drug use during that time. This case exemplifies how well many health care professionals respond to therapy. The prohlem is that, compared to the general population affected hy substance abuse disorders, health care professionals usually seek help late in the progression of the illness. Recognizing the problem in its early stages is difficult for those on their way to becoming impaired as well as for those who work with them. We know that substance abuse is a function of several elements, including the amount of psychoactive substance taken in a given period of time, the situation in which the substance is used, and the physical and psychological makeup of the individual using the substance. But these elements interact in ways that make impairment difficult to predict or identify on an individual 10 basis. Furthermore, every use of a psy- choactive substance does not necessarily impair the user, making it equally hard to discern between use, misuse, and abuse. The person who occasit)nally drinks before coming to work or who depends on stimulants to get through a 1 1-7 shift may not behave suspiciously. Or if a coworker notices a change in behavior and recognizes it as related to substance abuse, the potential abuser may deny it by passing it off as an iso- lated incident or by accusing the col- league of being an alarmist. Of course, when an impaired, chronic substance abuser continually arrives to work intox- icated or is discovered taking drugs intraveneously, associates can no longer ignore the fact. At this late stage in the progression of the disorder, the substance abuser may no longer be able to function. It is essential for those of us in the health care professions to assist one another by leading impaired colleagues, regardless of the stage of the disorder, into treatment. If individuals intervened in a timely manner, if the profession as a whole accepted the problem of substance abuse impairment as a treatable disorder, and if regulatory boards consistently took a balanced approach to the prob- lem, the expectations for a favorable outcome would be even greater for this population than they already are. \i Reference list available on request from VCU Publications. Anthony }. DeLellis, Ed. D. , is assistant director of the MCVH Division of Sub- stance Abuse Medicine and assistant professor of health administration. Ronald O. Forbes, M.D. , is associate director of the division and assistant profes- sor of psychiatry. Photography by Dennis McWaters. Since 1980, approximately 50 physi- cians, nurses, pharmacists, and other health care professionals have been treated in the MCVH Division of Sub- stance Abuse Medicine. Although hospitalization has been necessary for a few of these patients, most health care professionals treated by the division have been outpatients. After these patients underwent long- term medical treatment, the majority were able to return to their professions, both those who were obliged to get help by state regulatory boards or employers and those who sought treatment volun- tarily. A few patients have found contin- ued professional practice impossible in the short run and even fewer in the long run. However, most were able to con- tinue their careers. Research and training related to the treatment of impaired health care profes- sionals are growing aspects of the work of the division. An advantage to the research is that many health care profes- sionals, by virtue of their training, are able to describe the development of their substance abuse problem in great detail. As a result, their recollections provide a significant body of information with which to study the onset and progression of the disorder, from its acute to chronic stages. The division has developed a proposal to establish a fellowship. This trainmg program will prepare a physician to treat health care professionals for substance abuse, provide training in prescription writing practices to reduce treatment- related addiction in patients (iatrogenic addiction), and address the many regula- tory and legal issues related to both substance impaired health care profes- sionals and the matter of iatrogenic addiction. Clinical work is another important responsibility of the division. In addition to the treatment of impaired health care professionals, staff provide about 8,700 patient days of general inpatient treat- ment annually. The Outpatient Program has an average roster of 50 to 65 patients and the Partial Hospitalization Unit treats from 15 to 20 patients daily. The division's physicians also provide consul- tation to other units in MCV Hospitals. The division is a primary care unit for central Virginia and a tertiary care unit for the entire state and much of the Southeast. As one of only a few substance abuse medicine units in the nation located in a university teaching hospital, the division stresses education and training. Since 1982, approximately 40 internal medi- cine and five psychiatry residents have trained in the division. Medical students and graduate and undergraduate social work students also routinely take advan- tage of the division's training opportuni- ties. Monthly medical conferences are open to residents, nurses, administrators, pharmacists, physicians, and others in the university community, as well as to personnel in community and state agencies and area hospitals. The division is led by William D. Lerner, M.D., director and associate professor of internal medicine, and Ronald O. Forbes, M.D., associate director and assistant professor of psychi- atry. Clinical social workers, nurses, and a rehabilitation counselor — all with special skills in substance abuse treat- ment — work with the physicians in providing care. AFTER THE W\R: mw SOUTH IDEOIDGY By Samuel Craver bservers of the skyline of Rich- mond, Virginia, may note an unobtrusive struc- ture on the corner of Marshall and Capitol Streets. Cast in a large bronze plaque on the Marshall Street face of the building are the words "Vir- ginia Mechanics' Institute," the building now serving VCU's Medical College ot Virginia Campus. To a student of the history of the city and region, the words bring to mind an earlier time in the closing decades of the nineteenth cen- tury when sectional passions ran high and the hope in a new industrial future was manifest in the code words "New South." A key element in this hope was the development of that class of society known as mechanics — the skilled arti- sans and craftsmen who made the ma- chines, techniques, and processes ot industry function. The present structure was built in 1925, but the history of the institution it once served runs back to the antebellum South, a period usually associated with agrarianism. The Virginia Mechanics' Institute stood, even in that day, for industrial and technological progress in the South. The Institute was originally founded in 1854, amid the growing industrial strength of Richmond. The gathering clouds of the Civil War, however, were to overwhelm the fledg- ling institution, for in 1861, its property was taken over by the War and Navy Departments of the Confederate govern- ment, and classes were suspended. By 1865, the fate of the Confederacy was sealed and, in the evacuation of Rich- mond, Institute property was burned to the ground. Shortly thereafter, the real estate was sold to satisfy debts, and the Virginia Mechanics' Institute passed from the scene. Nevertheless, the memory of the Institute survived, particularly in the mind of a young former schoolteacher, rising attorney, and scion ot an old Virginia family — Lyon Gardiner Tyler, son of John Tyler, tenth president ot the United States. Tyler and a friend and professional colleague, Overton Howard, decided to try to resurrect the Mechan- ics' Institute. They settled on a plan of opening a "Night School of Technology" to be offered tree of charge to all yitung men who could not afford to pay for an education. On October 3, 1884, the Night School was opened, and tree courses were offered in mechanical drawing, mathematics, architectural drawing, and bookkeeping. By Decem- ber, there were 1 1 7 students and a faculty of five, among them Tyler and Howard. In the meantime, interest in reviving the defunct Mechanics' Institute had increased, and on December 5, 1884, a meeting was held by Tyler and the other faculty, attended by "professional men, merchants, and mechanics." Lewis Ginter, a co-founder of the American Tobacco Ct)mpany and reportedly the richest man in Virginia, was one supporter. Thomas Nelson Page, a leading figure in the Lost Cause genre of American literature, which glorified the Old South and heroic Confederates, was another. They formed an association to establish a mechanics' institute "adapted to the requirements of the industrial classes." By January 20, 1885, the group had adopted a constitution and by-laws, elected officers and a board ot managers, and by March 17, they had secured funding from the Richmond City Coun- cil to pay the expenses of the Night School. The Virginia Mechanics' Insti- tute was back in business. Why was there such a broad interest in such a lowly concern as adult indus- trial education, particularly in a state noted for a proud aristocratic tradition and strong class divisions? Thomas Nelson Page wrote that class feeling in Virginia was "stronger than existed ViH(;iNiA Mklhanics Insii ruiK — Fkek-Hand UKAW1N(, — WM. SlKVKK anywhere else on this side of the water, unless It was South Carolina." But it is important to recognize that while the times were hard, the South was begin- ning to pull out from under the ravages of the recent war. Page tt>ld how pt)verty-stricken young men, "supposed to be the proudest in the land," poured intt) the towns and cities, looking to supptirt themselves and their dependents, "engaging in the work t>f laborers and losing no caste by it." At least two developments help explain this phenomenon and the heightened inter- est in the education of industrial work- ers. One was a growing economic bt)om which, albeit short-lived, was to bolster petiple's confidence in the future, and the other was the New South ideology of industrial and economic progress. 12 By the early 1880s, the country was coming t)ut ot the economic dtildrums ot the previous decade. Virginia, and particularly Richmond, experienced a burst of economic growth. Michael Chesson, in his recent hook, Richmond After the War. 1865-1890. describes the city in the early 1880s as "frenetic" and "roaring with progress." Business, indus- try, and labor unions flourished. The city went on a large street and sewer improvement program, installed the country's third telephone system, and built a large electric street car system. It advertised its progress to the world with a great exposition in 1888, where the crowds numbered as many as 30,000 a day, and it published a commemorative volume of the event entitled Richmond, Virginia, and the New South. Thus, Richmond embraced industrial progress and the New South ideology with zeal in the heady decade ot the 1880s. But in 1893, a serious financial panic hit the country, and the resulting de- pression caused unemployment and bankruptcies in Richmond tor years. This had detrimental although not fatal effects on the Virginia Mechanics' Institute, but recovery would not fully come until the turn of the century. Among the mechanics involved in the refounding, and the new Institute's first president, was George A. Ainslie, a carnage maker. The first vice-president was a manufacturer ot farm implements. The other founders included a printer and manufacturer of ledgers, a manufac- turer of window sashes, a leader in Richmond's lumber industry, an engi- neer at the Tredegar Iron Works, and an architect. These men, who embraced New South industrialism, represented the leadership of the new Institute during its formative years and indicate the kinds ot influences brought to bear on Institute policies and programs. The New South ideology was based partly on tact and partly on wishful thinking and myth. Certainly many Southerners genuinely wanted industri- alization to come to the South, but there were also those who felt that if the mdustrial North had defeated them on the battlefield, they would in turn embrace industrialism with a vengeance and finally beat the Yankees at their own game. And so the New South was fatefully intertwined with the old; At the same time Southerners embraced Yankee industrialism, they built shrines to Confederate heroes and glorified a mythical Old South in literature and folklore. There was irt^iny in the way the ideol- ogy influenced the city and the region. If Richmond sought to he a New South leader with new industries and smoke- stacks changing its skyline, it also wel- comed the thousands ot contributions that poured in from all over the South to erect a statue to the memory ot Robert E. Lee, the first of many statues of Confederate heroes to dot the landscape and eventually to give a major new thoroughfare. Monument Avenue, its name. It Page helped retound the Vir- ginia Mechanics' Institute as a symbol of New South industrialism, he made a name for himself as a writer ot novels and short stories about the Old South as well. Literary critic Edmund Wilson said of Page that he really invented for the popular mind, both North and South, a vision of the plantation with genteel white ladies and gentlemen and their "dusky-skinned adoring retainers." Northerners, after the bloody confronta- tion of the Civil War, "illogically found it soothing to be told that slavery had not been so bad, that the Negroes were a lovable but simple race, whose business it was to work for the whites." Finally, if around the dinner table and at family gatherings the young were told to go out '^^i B. Virginia Mkchahios Institctk— Mechanical Drawing. 13 into the New South world to make their fortunes, they were also regaled in those same meetings with stirring tales of what it was like in the Old South, and of the valor and derring-do of kinsmen and other Confederate heroes during "The War." In short, a counterhalance devel- oped, a mentality estahlished among white Southerners to "never forget," an outlook that was to complicate the South's social, political, and economic life for generations to come, particularly in the area of race relations. However, the New South was not a totally southern invention. In 1882, the New York-based Century Magazine boosted a New South image of southern youth, some from the old families and many from the middle and lower classes, for whom post-war poverty and the promise of great success in industrializa- tion were goads. Many Southerners needed no prodding, but the message was nevertheless trumpeted from edito- rial page and pulpit. Henry Grady, the Georgian journalist, wrote eloquently of a New South "thrilling with the con- sciousness of growing power and prosper- ity." A North Carolina evangelist preached to his congregation that "the establishment of a cotton mill would be the most Christian act" his listeners could perform. At the resurrected Me- chanics' Institute, the message was drilled into students and supporters alike. If the old order had stood for artistocrats and agrarianism, the new stood for the urban middle class and industrialism with a peculiarly southern twist. Educational institutions reflect the larger society that creates and supports them. At the Institute the ambiguity surrounding New South notions of progress centered, on the one hand, in the effort to uplift the industrial classes and, on the other, to maintain privilege and class distinction. Not surprisingly, the most glaring evidence of these beliefs was the total exclusion of black indus- trial workers from the Institute, workers who made up a significant portion of Richmond's population and industrial labor force. The marriage of New South industri- alism and sectional pride was found in Corner of the Machine Shop. Vice-President Ashton Starke's reminder to Institute students in 1889: The day is coming when the ques- tion will arise as to who will take charge of these factories and fur- naces that are going to be built. Will it be men from across the seas or from the North or West.' God forbid. We are glad to welcome all, but let Virginia boys bring to them- selves fortunes and names that will live as monuments to their memory. By the 1890s, the sectional rhetoric had toned down, but the message to industri- alize remained. "Every engine that drives Automobile Mechanics' Laboratory. and every wheel that turns in the vast machinery ot our industries should be home-made," F. H. Richardson, editor ot the Atlanta Jourmi/, told the assem- bled students in 1891. Guest speaker R. H. Thurstone, head of Silbey College at Cornell University, assured Institute students in 1894 that a new day was dawning, "the Era of Science Applied to the Arts." At the Mechanics' Institute, a New South type of class consciousness was part of the message. The Institute's constitution stated that the objectives "shall be the promotion and encourage- ment of manufactures, the Mechanic and Useful Arts, and the mental and social improvement ot the industrial classes." Treasurer W. E. Simons claimed that the chief object of the Institute was "to provide the means of education to a large class of boys — our apprentices — who are compelled to work in the day- time and have no means of obtaining an education except from a night school." President Ainslie described the students as young men who had to work for their own and their families' support, and one mission of the Institute was to help these students reach higher levels of knowl- edge and scientific achievement. The board took considerable care in choosing speakers who would highlight Institute objectives and inspire students. The speaker for the annual closing exercises on May 16, 1899, was Rabbi Edward N. Calish, whose address was subsequently The room in which Practical Electrical Wiring is taught. published and distributed by the Insti- tute. In Calish 's words, the work of the Institute was of inestimable value be- cause it aimed to reach "the middle or industrial class," the one that "bears the burdens of society," and upon "whose sturdy shoulders rests the world of organ- ized human society." The Institute's educational program was organized around the Night School, periodic lectures and exhibitions, and the Institute library. Of these programs, the Night School was by far the most important. Starting with five instructors and four course offerings in the fall of 1884, the Night School grew to 24 faculty, 1 5 subject areas, and 36 course The Blacksmith Shop. offerings by 1903. The basic curriculum was established by the 1887-88 term around arithmetic, algebra, geometry, electricity, physics, and engineering. These subjects served as the core curric- ulum throughout the period, with the 14 »•" " i„. > ax. Tfl 1« addition of industrial modeling in 1890, woodcarving in 1895, English in 1897, and analytical geometry and differential calculus in 1902. From its beginnings, the Institute was hampered by the inadequate background preparation of the students. Little is said about the personal circumstances of students in the official records of the Institute; however, they varied in age, background preparation, ability, and capacity to stay with their studies while maintaining daytime jobs. Practically all of the students were fatigued aftet work- ing all day. Basic was a desire to help them pursue higher studies than taught in the public schools, but throughout the period, remedial courses had to be offered to make up for student deficien- cies, particularly in mathematics. The depression from 1893 to 1899 was especially difficult, and there was an accompanying decline in funding, enrollment, and educational services. Frequent requests were made from students for withdrawal because of loss of jobs and other economic hardships. Some wanted a refund of membership dues, which, though only $3 a year, became a luxury many students could ill afford. The Institute tried to get state financial aid throughout the period but never succeeded. City appropriations were reduced during the depression and were not fully restored until 1900. During most of its first 20 years, the Institute had existed in inadequate rented facilities, but in 1901, it moved to new quarters at 1014-1016 East Main Street, with the help of a large bequest from the estate of Lewis Ginter and contributions of many local citizens. By 1904, the end of its revival, the Virginia Mechanics' Institute had become an established fixture in the educational, economic, and social life of the area. Over the coming years it would grow and change. It would move to the more expansive headquarters on the corner of Marshall and Capitol Streets in 1925, and in 1942, its board would be dis- solved and the Institute would come under the control of the Richmond public schools. With this merger, the clientele would change to include day- time high school students. In 1966, its name would be changed to the Rich- mond Technical Center, and this new entity would move to its present location on Westwood Avenue. In tandem with its physical relocation and expansion of service, the old barriers of race, so consciously maintained in an earlier time, would slowly be torn down. There was no scarcity of rhetoric in the New South ideology, and the practi- cal effects often fell short of expecta- tions. But the 1885 revival of the Vir- ginia Mechanics' Institute was one tangible result. Today, its successor, the Richmond Technical Center, conducts day classes for high school students and continues to operate night classes for working adults, enrolling over 2,400 students in the current term. It remains, more than ever, an important ingredient in the educational, economic, and social life of the community. S A Town House. or MCOCRATC COST - Samuel Craver, Ph. D. , is associate profes- sor of educational studies, adult and voca- tional/technical education at the university. Photographs courtesy oj the Teachers' Resource Workshop, VCU School of Education. r --n._ gj l". L II JI ITir rrri h rj Sdc EJ^EVApoH or BAC^ suildiNc LOfJcmjcwW. Scc-porJ OH Aa. ViBoniA lt>cBA.BicB iRvriTUTi— ABoarrtcru&AL Dbawiko. 15 THE PRACTICAL POWER OF HYPNOSIS By Cynthia McMullen An eight'year-old child screams with pain, her leg bleeding profusely. On the ivay to the hospital, where she will need over 20 stitches to close the gaping wound, her father talks calmly to her. "Think of some- thing you enjoy domg," he says. "Think of something pleasant. " Later, the girl's mother asks whether the procedure was very painful. "What do you mean?" the child cries. "/ ivasn't even there." Her mother is con/used. "Well, where were you, honey!" "You know," the child answers patiently, forgiving her mother's seeming lapse in memory. "/ was at Nag's Head, picking up shells off the beach." A scene frum the Twilight Zone? N», says Dr. Winfred O. Ward, this is just a typical example of the positive power ot hypnosis. The injured child, Ward's daughter, is now a 23-year-old student pursuing her master's degree at VCU. Using hypnosis as an anesthetic or to promote relaxation was common to Ward's early medical practice and, he says, his daughter has always heen "a very good subject." Ward, who received his M.D. degree from the Medical College of Virginia in 1958, decided after nine years of family practice that he wanted to return to school to concentrate on psychosomatic medicine. Though no formal residency was available in that field, he received his training through studies in London and at Columbia University and the Universities of Pennsylvania, Georgia, and California. Returning to Richmond, Ward established his present practice, one in which he uses hypnosis in treating about 75 percent of his patients. One of just several hundred hypnoanalysts in the United States, Ward says more and more doctors are using hypnosis in varying degrees, though few use it to the extent he has during the past 12 years. Ward stresses that he uses hypnosis only in combination with general ther- apy to treat a variety of problems from stress, migraine headaches, and irritable bowel disease to neurotic disorders and obesity. He compares treatment by hypnoanalysis to a physician using a hypodermic needle to administer medi- cine. Hypnosis is the syringe; it's merely the tool, or vehicle, through which treatment is provided. "Believe me," he says, "there's no miracle associated with hypnosis." And yet it does seem to work, again and again. However, warns Ward, "The 16 '■^f' I ' !■' *l.*>r ability to be in hypnosis is a gift, but it can be a danget as well." As is ttue ot any medical treatment, it works best when applied by someone who has been properly trained and who knows when and when not to use it. Asked about the skepticism with which some medical practitioners must view his work, Ward says that the majority ot his patients are referred to him by other physicians. "In tact," he says, "I find it a real compliment that many physicians have asked me to treat members of their own families and even themselves." Many of thcise same physi- cians, impressed with the results, have begun to incorporate hypnosis into their own practices. In addition. Ward has taught hypnotic technique to students in the university's School of Dentistry. Ward is quick to dispel the miscon- ceptions often fostered by the hypnotic trances as porttayed, for instance, by television sitcoms. The typical scenario ot the swinging watch or pendulum lulling an unsuspecting victim into a deep, amnestic trance, for example, is misleading in three ways: 1 . Ward talks his patients into a hypnotic state, he says. Very seldom is an object used to help induce hypnosis unless the patient requests it in order to have something on which to concenttate. 2. "Unsuspecting" victim? No, says Ward, it's highly im- probable that one could be hypnotized in a one-time meeting without one's con- sent or prior knowledge. Long-term "brain working" is something else again. 3. "People often ask if the hypnotic state is like dreaming," comments Ward. "1 tell them no, it's more like daydream- ing." The patient is aware of what is happening; it's just a different level ot awareness in which one's inhibitions are lowered. Very few subjects, according to Ward, cannot remember what has been said during hypnosis. The most important thing in dealing with any patient initially, says Ward, is seeing him or her face to face. Body language is extremely important, not just what is said, but how it is said. This information provides the basis from which he works out his method of treat- ment. "1 don't do telephone diagnosis," he says, though he often is requested to do so by people looking for a quick cure. According to Ward, about 70 percent of the population can use hypnosis readily, and 15 percent can perform at very deep levels. Another 15 percent is not susceptible to hypnosis due to the inability to concenttate; this occurs primarily in persons with vety low intellect or those with personality dis- orders. People who say they are too "strong-willed" to be hypnotized, he says, usually turn out to be the best subjects. They can turn that strength ot will to their advantage because it can lead to deeper concentration. "The problem," he says, "is not get- ting people hypnotized. The problem is when people come to me with unreal expectations. They expect immediate healing." Ward explains that hypnoanal- ysis concentrates on dealing with the cause ot the problem, not the symptoms alone, and this process takes more time. Unlike biofeedback or transcendental meditation, in which the stress itself is likely to be controlled, treatment by hypnosis aims at finding the root ot the problem and controlling it before stress occurs. Ward is modest about his achieve- ments and those of his chosen field. "People sometimes get well, but if we take credit for it, we're in trouble." As he points out, "Who's to say they wouldn't still have gotten well if we hadn't done anything?" That may well he, but hypnosis and hypnoanalysis as methods of treatment have produced some impressive results. Ward uses child cancer victims as an example. As Ward has mentioned, children are good subjects for hypnosis and they often work bettet in groups because they communicate so well with each other. Studies, particularly in the past two to three years, have shown a definite correlation between young cancer victims on whom hypnosis has been used and inexplicable, but mt)re frequent remissions. In addition, the children seem better able to relate to each other and to deal with their disease. A recent book by Drs. Karen Oiness and G. Gail Gardner documents the effectiveness of hypnosis on children, and studies show that even children two and three years of age are susceptible. Often, says Ward, older children are eager to teach hypnosis to the younger ones in groups. "They find it an interest- ing and pleasant experience." Self-hypnosis can be effective in many ways. Ward, for instance, sees himself as "a good deep hypnotic subject." He generally uses self-hypnosis rather than an anesthetic for excision of skin lesions. "The surgeons can see evidence ot the heightened adrenalin when they go in," he says, "and bleeding is usually mini- mal." In fact, he points out, hypnosis is an effective method of controlling bleeding in hemophiliacs. Abusing self-hypnosis is virtually impossible. Ward says. The mind usually protects itself and one is able to come out of the hypnotic state with a mental snap of the fingers. As for the eight-year-old at Nag's Head, she still uses hypnosis for relaxa- tion and, in the past year, was able to control her own severe case of asthma using similar techniques. A teenaged boy is murdered in cold blood as his neighbors watch in horror. There are a number of eyewitnesses, but no one can give the police a good enough description to locate the car from which the fatal shot came, or the people in the car. Finally, a teenager comes forward who is willing to undergo a hypnotic interview. Through hypnosis, he is able to give different ar\d more detailed information about the incident. As a result, the three men in the car are brought to justice and convicted . . . of murder. Forensic hypnosis, says Ward, can he a most exciting and rewarding experi- ence. He volunteers his time to aid various law enforcement agencies, among them the FBI and CIA, and he was recognized in 1981 by the city of Richmond Bureau of Police for his help in the case of the anonymous murderers. Ward doesn't usually tape-record his sessions — he takes notes in lon^^hand — hut it's a necessary factor in working on criminal investigation cases. In over 250 cases, he has helped ohtain information used in criminal trials, ohen working with witnesses who have diHiculty rememhering or descrihing what they saw or heard. At times, he also works with accused criminals who may or may not he guilty — and who may really not he aware of whether they are or not. Ward says one of his colleagues, Dr. Herbert Spiegel at Columbia University, refers to these people as "emotional vacuum cleaners," or highly suggestible people who may admit to crimes they haven't committed because they've convinced themselves otherwise. It's Ward's job to find the truth. Forensic hypnosis requires special training, says Ward, but often it proves worth the effort. He says many Virginia police have been trained in this area although, to his knowledge, they use it only to interpret the results of testing by licensed hypnotists. Currently, there is a question of whether hypnosis should even be used in criminal investigations; the issue is under examination by an American Medical Association committee. Ward has been on both sides of the fence; he has had to testify for the state and for the defense at various times. Asked why he charges nothing for this work, he replies simply, "I have this idea that this is just something we're supposed to do." "]ust relax," instructs the doctor. "1 want you to see a calendar, a big desk calendar. " The patient regresses all the way to her birth. "It's cold," she responds. "It is now so cold. 1 am beside this other person, this warm, other person. . . . She is not smiling at all . . . just staring at me. She is not happy." Further therapy reveals many more episodes of childhood rejection and aliena- tion, inscribed forever on her subconscious mind' Some dreams, says Ward, have indi- cated an intra-utero awareness; hypnosis often uncovers events beginning at birth that may have had an impact on the life of the patient and which may be neces- sary to understand in dealing with that person's present situation. "I do deal extensively with dreams," says Ward. "Hypnosis may make you more aware ot your dreams, but it won't make you dream differently or remember more than you did before." For people who want to remember their dreams, he recommends writing them down imme- diately upon awakening. On the subject of using hypnosis to uncover previous lives — a claim made recently by several people in the movie industry — Ward says, "This is a medical office, not a travel agency!" Ward has found, however, that un- covering present lives, particularly when one person is living several of them, can be most challenging. He has his own story to tell in The Healing of Lia (Mac- Millan Publishing Co., Inc., 1982), which he wrote with his patient, Lia Farrelli (a pseudonym). Lia's way of coping with her pressures was the same as the women featured in Sybd and The Three Faces of Eve; her own personality splintered into several different ones. What sets this hook apart is that Ward and Lia tell their own story, in the first person. They use excerpts from her journal, which was written by her alter egos and of which she had no knowledge at the time. Lia, who had been under psychiatric care for ten years prior to working with Ward, achieved personal- ity integration after only 20 hours of hypnotherapy. Though this type of work may sound more exciting than curing yet another smoker of the addiction to cigarettes. Ward says it is also very draining, the most grueling and time-demanding ot the problems with which he deals — for both the patient and the analyst. As he explains, an hour's appointment can easily be shot and stretched to two or three hours. "How can you just turn that kind ot thing oft?" he asks. In dealing with the more common problems that can be successfully treated with hypnosis. Ward says treatment time varies greatly depending on the subject and the cause ot the problem. For in- stance, he says, treating a habitual smoker takes less time than treating a psychological smoker. Treating gastroin- testinal problems can take anywhere from four to 14 hours of sessions. Alco- holism is difficult to treat through hyp- nosis. Ward says, because the patient must stay sober long enough to achieve a deep level of concentration. As far as weight control goes. Ward conducted a fi)llow-up on his patients friim 1976-79 and found that 73 percent were able to lose weight and to maintain that loss. In the event that any of Ward's patients are not receptive to hypnosis, he works with them in the more tradi- tional psychotherapy modes or refers them to one of two counselors on statf who conduct one-on-one therapy and counseling. When patients can he hypnotized, he says, "it they see results they generally like it and stick with it." By "sticking with it," of course, he refers not only to treatment in the doctor's office, but to the follow-through that must be practiced by people who are working on relaxation techniques, tor instance, or weight control. Following the doctor's instructions is very impor- tant, says Ward, as is making sure one is seeing a reputable practitioner. Unfortunately, most states have no laws governing the use ot hypnosis. As Ward explains it, "There are many good lay hypnotists, but very few have train- ing in physiology and pathology. With- out the training, they may be perfectly competent to teach relaxation, but they certainly are not equipped to deal with emotional illness." He says a good safeguard tor people planning to see someone who uses hypnosis in treatment is to check with the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis in DesPlaines, Illi- nois, or the American Society ot Clini- cal and Experimental Hypnosis in New York. "The biggest reward I get in this work," says Ward, "is in the follow-up. It's a thrill to get a letter from someone I treated five years ago saying, 'Doctor, I'm fine, feeling better than ever!' " S Cynthia McMwKen is an editor in VCU Publications. Ilhistratiim by Kelly Alder. 19 II I N W The "business" of medicine Treating every profession end institution as if they were busi- nesses seems to be a by-product of ttie tectinologicaliy-oriented eigtities. And, although people devoted to the promotion of business and business techniques feel that health care should be included in the push for entrepre- neurial organization, Dr Arnold S. Relman disagrees. Editor of the New England Journal of Medicine and a professor of medicine at Harvard University, Relman is quick to point out that he is " , . a con- firmed capitalist, I believe in the free enterprise system, and some of my best friends ore business- men!" Hov^ever, he says, there are basic differences betv/een a business and o profession. When the distinctions become blurred, it's to the detriment of both. In his talk on the "business" of medicine at VCU's 21st annual Sanger Lecture, Relman said that historically, physicians have been paid a fee and, in that sense, they vi/ork for profit. But, he adds, a profession is based on education and special knowl- edge, providing services to society, being licensed and approved by that society, and securing a state's permission to regulate one's self and one's practice. In other words, a physician has the autonomy to set requirements for his or her own education and qualifications. A business, on the other hand, is based on none of these applications. While it's expected to be honest and produce a good product, the general rule of thumb still Is "Buyer, beware." Ability to buy depends on ability to pay, and a successful con- sumer must be an informed, discriminating buyer Physicians, says Relman, act as their patients' trustee or agent; in essence, they are responsible for making purchasing decisions for the patients. And therein lies a potential conflict; the more doctors prescribe, the more money they may make. The concept of health care as an Industry or business is an oxymoron, according to Relman. In health care, one's very life and health depend on the quality and integrity of the supplier However, he admits, it is becom- ing more and more difficult for doctors to regard themselves as professionals rather than businessmen. Where primary care physicians once were in the majority (70 percent), they now are in the minority (30 percent). "It didn't used to be easy for a doctor to be cavalier about putting a patient In the hospital," explains Relman, due to the ongoing, more personal patient-doctor relationship and the fact that patients rarely were insured and thus had to pay all their own medical expenses. With the advent of specializa- tion, new medical techniques, and third party Insurance, physicians had to give less thought to the patient's ability to pay. After World War II, the suppliers — the doctors and the hospitals — found it was possible to get rich in the health care professions. Also, says Relman, with the development of Medicare/ Medicaid programs, small proprietary hospitals for profit, and investor-owned hospitals and health care centers, exploit- ing the system of third party insurers became more common. The new "medical industrial complexes" of investor-owned health care corporations are growing 10 to 12 percent annu- ally, Relman says, causing costs to increase and patients to become concerned. "If this happened in the auto industry," Relman says, "it would be viewed as a success. In this case, it's seen as an unmitigated natural disaster!" Twenty years ago the federal government committed Itself to take care of this nation's poor and elderly citizens. Now, as Relman points out, the govern- ment Is trying to back off from too open-ended a promise. This, unfortunately, forces even more competition and commercializa- tion in the health care profes- sions. "Doctors are in such large numbers now that they're worried about survival," says Relman. "One way they can make up for that is by going commercial." While corporate medicine Is against the law in most states, Relman notes that many mem- bers of the medical professions are becoming partners in business or employees of busi- nesses In order to protect them- selves and their livelihood. But, says Relman, that's in conflict with the essence of being a doctor: to be the best independent agent for one's patient without prior or overriding concerns for one's self. And that's not easy if you own a piece of the pie. "We're at a turning point In the medical profession," declares Relman, "and we must make a decision." If medicine does indeed become a business, he says, the needs of the poor and the elderly will be disregarded; the ability to pay is necessary to a successful business. The ethical basis that separates the profes- sion from business will be lost. The American Medical Association, according to Relman, says that if a doctor tells the patient of his or her investments, that makes it all right. "But it's not OK!" argues Relman. "If we continue, and the system becomes unworkable, we'll end up specializing . . . boutique medicine. The public won't accept It, and we'll lose our franchise with the public. "Our technical services will always be needed," he says, "but If we lose our contract, society will use us in other ways. Commitment to service always should take precedence over economic interest in this profession." — Cynihia McMullen Editnr, Research in Action Safe disposal of hazardous wastes The university recently passed a safety Inspection by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The inspection, which was com- pleted in February, examined the activities conducted under the university's license as it relates to radiation safety and compli- ance with NRC rules and regulations. According to Dr Dean W. Broga, director of the university's Office of Environmental Health and Safety, VCU is one of the largest medical users of radia- tion In Virginia and the South. Among the responsibilities of OEHS Is directing the safe use of radiation and radioactive materials at the university. Swapping facuhy VCU has recently joined the National Faculty Exchange, a network of more than 100 U.S. colleges and universities that provides multi-lateral exchange opportunities for faculty and administrators. VCU's participation is coordi- nated by the Center for Educa- tional Development and Faculty Resources. The NFE allows faculty and professional administrative staff to leave their familiar campus situations temporarily for the challenge of a new and different college or university and geographic setting. It has been funded by the Exxon Education Foundation to encourage more interchange of ideas among professionals In higher education by Increasing their mobility. Faculty can teach new courses, establish new professional contacts, or pursue different research options. According to Denlse Janha, NFE coordinator for VCU, other agencies are planning to join NFE in 1985-86, including the U.S. General Accounting Office, the Library of Congress, and the U.S. Department of Education's Offices of Higher Education and Student Financial Assistance. The center is now accepting applications from VCU faculty for future exchanges. A second conception Two Virginia couples are expect- ing a baby this summer thanks to the MCV Hospitals' in vitro fertilization program. Ron and Mary Eimer of central Virginia are the first couple to achieve a pregnancy by this method at MCVH. For six years, Steven and Melissia Clay had tried to have a baby. They entered the in vitro fertilization program at MCVH, the second of its kind to be established in Virginia. Program staff, under the direction of Dr Sanford Rosenberg, have now been evaluating infertile couples and performing the technique for a year Learning to play music the old way How do you encourage students to learn music from all periods, when they often do not have access to the Instruments for which the classical works were scored? VCU's Department of Music answered that question by creating a museum of musical Instruments so that students might have the opportunity to play Mozart on a harpsicord or Bach 20 on a clavier. The museum has more than 50 instruments and is always seeking additions to the collection. All instruments in the museum, from string bass to violin to box piano, are playable and ovailable to students. Playing the stock market Jack Eggleston turned a S100,000 investment into $183,438 in about ten weeks, despite the sluggish market in the final quarter of 1984. He invested in Teleconcepts and later short-sold Pantry Pride stock to turn the profit. Jack won't be spending any of his money, however — it's only a paper profit. Like countless other students throughout the United States, Jack, a Harrisonburg High School student, participated this fall in a simulated investment game. A total of 1 ,300 teams played VCU's Stock Mart<et Game this year In the Mid-Atlantic District, the game is sponsored by the Virginia Council on Economic Education and the Securities Industry Association. Students receive an imaginory 5100,000 to invest over a ten-week period. This year's teams represented 200 schools and 8,000 students in Virginia, North Carolina, Dela- ware, Maryland, and central and western Pennsylvania. The students come from upper elementary grades through college. New hope for victims of facial pain The typical patient is female, under stress, and desperate for help. By the time she arrives at the Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) and Facial Pain Research Center at the university, she might have seen a dozen specialists and spent thousands of dollars, but the problem just gets worse. Sometimes there is an undetected physical cause; sometimes it's the body's expres- sion of mental anxieties. Special- ists in the School of Dentistry and the Department of Psychology are treating these patients and researching new ways to identify and help them. CSX Corporation coming through Expanded educational oppor- tunities will be available to outstanding students as a result of a 325,000 unrestricted gift from the CSX Corporation to VCU's Presidential Scholarship and Honors Program. According to Dr. Wayne C. Hall, provost and vice-president for academic affairs and coordi- nator of the Honors Program, the money will be used to attract more students of high academic achievement by providing awards of financial support. The gift also will help to expand a lecture and cultural activities series. CSX also provided funds totaling 356,500 to continue the Terrace Concert Series of VCU for the 1985-86 season. The concerts are performed with the coopera- tion of the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington, D.C., and bring internationally recognized chamber music artists and groups to VCU's Performing Arts Center. Plastic surgery in the year 2000 Plastic surgery in the twenty-first century: the patient doesn't need an anesthetic. Instead, electrical probes turn on the brain's natural opiates; sophisticated compu- ters, scanners, lasers, and robots are the surgeon's tools. When Dr. I. Kelman Cohen, chairman of the Division of Plastic Surgery at MCV Hospitals, looks toward the future, he sees these developments and more. Wrinkles will be controlled scientifically, eliminating face- lifts. Fat deposits will be eradi- cated with drugs or genetic manipulations rather than fat suction. Even the more dromatic plastic surgery operations, such as reattaching severed limbs, repairing birth defects, recon- structing shattered faces, and revitalizing burned skin, will change. An executive in residence Charles Brown, chairman of the board of AT&T, presented a program to introduce students to senior-level business executives and to demonstrate "real world" examples of classroom theory for students. Brown is the Charles G. Thalhimer Family Executive-in- Residence in VCU's School of Business. Brown has been chairman of the board of AT8(,T since 1979, steering the company through a period of momentous change in the telecommunications industry. As the company's chief execu- tive. Brown led ATSiT through the largest corporate reorganization in history, culminating in January 1984 with the divestiture of the local Bell telephone companies. The agenda for the two-day session included lectures and discussions on business excel- lence in America, the future of AT&T and the communications industry, and government policies toward the telecommu- nications industry. The program also included the School of Business Honors Day, recognizing outstanding students, faculty, and alumni. Nontraditional needs As the trend toward more nontraditional students on college campuses grows, advisors are faced with greater challenges in helping students who may be older, changing careers, returning to complete an initial degree, or faced with some other kinds of broken life patterns. At VCU, the Advising Center has become an "open door" to the university for people returning to school. A special course, "Focus on Career Choice," is offered specifically for adults who need help sorting out current educotional and occupational opportunities. Fulbright recipient Dr. Gerald A. Soft, formerly a resident in internal medicine on the MCV Campus, was named a Fulbright scholar for 1984-85 in January. Soft is currently conduct- ing research in hematology in Israel. The purpose of the Fulbright Program, now in its 38th year, as set forth in the Mutual Educa- tional and Cultural Exchange Act of 1951, is to "enable the govern- ment of the United States to increase mutual understanding between the people of the United States and the people of other countries." Nearly 800 Americans have been awarded Fulbright grants for university lecturing and postdoctoral research in almost 100 countries. The Council for International Exchange of Scholars convened peer review committees this year composed of American scholars and professionals to review the more than 3,000 applications and make recommendations to Fulbright Program agencies and universities abroad. The Fulbright Program is financed and admin- istered by the U.S. Information Agency (USIA). The Council for International Exchange of Scholars, an affiliate of the American Council of Education, works with USIA in administering the program. Recognizing medical education An educational film for residents of MCV Hospitals, which depicts an emergency room situation in Main Hospital, recently won first place in a national competition of the International Film and TV Festival in New York. The film, "The Complex Multi-System Injured Patient," featured two MCVH physicians: Dr. Alfred Gervin, associate professor of surgery and director of Emer- gency Medical Services, and Dr Glenn Barnhart, a fellow in cardiovascular surgery. Toward helping substance abusers "Substance Abuse among Health Care Professionals" was the focus of the second annual Hoff- Robinson Symposium on Sub- stance Abuse Medicine this spring. Keynote speaker Dr. Edward J, Khantzian, associate professor of psychiatry at the Harvard Medical School, is nationally known for his work with substance impaired health care professionals. New methods of treatment for drug and alcohol abuse were presented last summer during the first symposium. Dr. David Knott of the University of Tennessee, a physician who has established several treatment and research centers in the South, addressed last year's symposium on "The Future of the Drug-Alcohol Enterprise: Science vs. Craft." The Hoff-Robinson Symposium was established in 1984 to explore major issues in the field of substance abuse medicine. The symposium is named in honor of Dr. Ebbe Hoff, who in 1948 founded what is today the MCVH Division of Substance Abuse Medicine, and Elisabeth 21 Robinson who worked with Hoff ' as a social worker The symposium is supported by the Hoff-Robinson Fund for the Advancement of Substance Abuse Medicine, established to receive gifts in support of re- search, training, and the annual symposium. Direct-dial health The MCV Hospitals Health Line has been in operation for more than eight years. By calling (804) 786-1000, people can listen to their choice of taped messages on various health topics. The most frequently requested tapes ore for cancer information. The Health Line was originally developed under a grant from the National Cancer Institute with the cooperation of the American Cancer Society, Virginia Division. During the past year, the Health Line has been undergoing reorganization. Dr. Lome K. Garrettson, associate professor of pediatrics and pharmacology, recently has been appointed medical director for the pro- gram. Under Garrettson 's direc- tion, the Health Line is being managed as a joint effort with the Central Virginia Poison Center. The tapes also are being reviewed and updated. The service is operated seven days a week from 8 am-11 pm. Callers are connected by a nurse to recorded health care information on cancer and other health problems. Callers outside the Richmond area can dial the Health Line toll-free at 1-800-552- 2020. Richmond respondents on crime More than seven out of ten (72 percent) Richmond area resi- dents favor giving police more power to question people, and more than nine out of ten (92 percent] favor the courts giving harsher sentences for persons convicted of violent crimes. Sixty- six percent of Richmonders favor the death penalty for persons convicted of murder. These views represent part of the results of the fall 1984 Richmond Area Survey recently released by the Survey Research Laboratory of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology. The fall survey, "Crime, Victim- ization, and Law Enforcement," sought the views of Richmond area residents on various aspects: of the topic, using personal and telephone interviews. Among some of the many responses collected, the survey revealed that 48 percent of the respon- dents feel crime in their neigh- bortioods has remained rela- tively unchanged over the past two years, despite the recent "wave" of crime reporting in the local media. Opinions were split on the amount of crime in the public schools; 44 percent think it has increased in the last two years, while an equal percent think it has stayed the same. Noting the strong support for more police power and harsher sentences, the respondents were asked about their personal fears of crime. Two-thirds indicated that they worry "frequently" or "sometimes" about having their homes burglarized. Over one- half expressed similar concern about being robbed or mugged. One-third feared being violently attacked, such as being beaten up, stabbed, or shot, and neariy one-fourth of the women sur- veyed said they worry about being sexually assaulted. Each semester, the SRL con- ducts a Richmond Area Survey on a variety of public issues, drawing on the expertise of the SRL staff and benefiting both the Richmond community and VCU students who use the laboratory to perfect their investigative social science skills. Housing market review Despite falling mortgage interest rates during the third quarter of 1984, the number of residential home sales in Virginia declined, according to a report published by the Virginia Real Estate Research Center at VCU, The center publishes quarteriy reports that provide information on the real estate activity of principal markets in each of Virginia's nine largest metropoli- tan areas. The current perform- ance in each of the sectors is compared to both the previous quarter and the same quarter of a year ago. A summary of the third-quarter report's findings indicates that, along with a 10 percent drop in the number of sales, the dollar value of total homes sold de- creased 11 percent. The average price of a home in Virginia during the third quarter was $90,941. The prime lending rate, which peaked at 13 percent eariy in the quarter, began falling through September. Construction lending, typically tied to the prime rate, however, did not experience any substan- tial increases. The average marketing time needed for selling a home during the third quarter was 71 days, a 9 percent increase from the second quarter. The total dollar volume of construction permits issued in the third quarter was only slightly behind the second quarter (minus 3 percent] and well ahead of the third quarter of 1983 (21 percent). Copies of the report and additional information are available in the Virginia Real Estate Research Center, (804)257-1721, Men about town "A Change of Pace" was this year's theme for the 11th annual Men About Town fashion show sponsored by the MCV Hospitals Auxiliary, Men from local busi- nesses, government agencies, and organizations posed as Richmond area trendsetters in the show, which was held in April in the Miller and Rhoads Tea Room. Among the 15 models were Dr Harold M. Maurer, chairman of the Department of Pediatrics; Peter F. Rapp, MCV Hospitals' administrator of operations; Louis C. Saksen, VCU's assistant vice- president of facilities manage- ment; and Dr Jack Spiro, direc- tor of the Judaic Studies Program and rabbi of Congregation Beth Ahabah. Entertainment during the champagne reception, dinner, and show was provided by the VCU Jazz Quartet and VCU dancers. Proceeds from the show will benefit diabetes research on the MCV Campus. A visiting scholar The School of Nursing hosted the second Doris B. Yingling Visiting Scholar Program in March. This year's visiting scholar was Dr. Joyce Fitzpatrick, dean of the School of Nursing at Case Western Reserve University. Fitzpatrick is nationally recog- nized for her advancement of nursing research as well as for her doctoral nursing program development. She presented a public lecture on "Demystifying the Research Process" as one of several activities while at VCU. She also met with faculty and students and participated in seminars, workshops, and research meetings. Post-abortion therapy This spring, VCU's Center for Psychological Services and Development began offering group therapy sessions for women who have had abortions. The 12- week therapy sessions evolved from the research of Leslie Butterfield, a doctoral candidate in clinical psychol- ogy, who found that women suffer less intense symptoms of depression and tension when they participated in post- abortion therapy. Women in the sessions reported positive feelings about recognizing and coping with the various stages of grieving frequently associated with post-abortion emotional responses. Tuition and fees for 1985-86 The executive committee of VCU's Board of Visitors has approved increases in student charges for 1985-86. Total charges for in-state undergraduates, including room and board, will increase 7.5 percent next academic year. Tuition and fees will be SI, 798, a 9.1 percent or S150 increase over the current year's costs. Housing costs will average $1,535, a 4,8 percent Increase, Board charges will go up 8.9 percent. The smallest increase for next year will be borne by in-state graduate students. The executive committee approved a 2.9 percent increase, or a total of $2,134, In tuition and fees, only $60 more than this year's costs. In the past, rate increases for in- state graduate students have averaged about 18 percent a year. Out-of-state undergraduates will pay roughly three times the rotes charged in-state students, representing a 19.6 percent increase, bringing the new out- of-state total to $4,088. Out-of- state graduate students will pay $3,964 In 1985-86, a 8.5 percent increase. The executive committee's aim in making its recommendations was to keep college education affordable for Virginia residents. Increases for in-state students are the smallest in six years. 22 Second Gait scholar Dr. King E. Davis, professor of social work, lias been nonnecl Virginia's second Gait Visiting Sctiolar in Public Mental Healtti by ttie Virginia Department of Mental Healtti and Mental Retardation. Establistied in January 1983, the Gait sctiolar post is designed to strengttien ties between Virginia's educational institutions and state tiospitals and training centers for the mentally handi- capped. It is named for the Gait family in recognition of their contributions as the initial leader- ship in the creation of today's Eastern State Hospital, founded in 1773 in Williamsburg as the Eastern Lunatic Asylum of Virginia and the first public, psychiatric hospital in the country. Davis formerly was professor of social wort< at Norfolk State University and from 1970-75 served as director of mental health clinics and centers for the Department of Mental Health and Mental Retardation. In 1982, he headed the Commissioner's Task Force on Mental Health and Mental Retardation Forensic System Services. Continuing studies and public service statistics The Evening Studies Office has completed its recent profile of VCU evening students. The "typical E-student" is 30 years old, already holds a degree, and is currently taking classes as a special or nondegree seeking, part-time student. According to evening studies staff, with 5,000 evening students, "diversity" is the best term to describe the eve- ning program. In her recent study of gradu- ates from the Bachelor of Gen- eral Studies Program, Dr. Meta Braymer, coordinator, says that 89 percent of the respondents said they would choose the B.G.S. degree over a conven- tional degree program if they had it all to do over again. More than 85 percent of the respon- dents said that they thought their nontraditional degree was a big help to their careers. VCU Annual Giving phonathon The Second Annual Spring Phonathon took place over a period of ten evenings in late March and April from VCU's Meeting Center. Using a 20-line phone bank, alumni and student volunteers talked to alumni prospects from the university's 12 ' schools and one college. According to Robert J. Fagg, Jr, director of the Annual Giving Program, this year's phonathon was a resounding success. The goal was set at 520,000, but the 175 students and alumni who volunteered their time brought in 542,659, more than double the original goal and nearly four times greater than last year's total of $11,500. The alumni group from the School of Pharmacy had the largest single evening total of 57,912. VCU Alumni Association award winner Patty Janice Baker, a native of Danville, Virginia, has been named this year's winner of the Virginia Commonwealth Univer- sity Alumni Association Award. The award is given to a graduat- ing student who has demon- strated commitment to VCU through scholastic achievement and involvement in campus ac- tivities. Candidates for the award must have held at least two ex- ecutive positions in student orga- nizations and maintained a grade point average of 3.5. As a marketing major in the School of Business, Baker helped establish the Society of Business Students and served as its 1984- 85 president. She also was vice- president of the American Mar- keting Association and a member of the VCU Concert Committee. As a student repre- sentative on the School of Busi- ness Curriculum Committee, Baker proposed revisions to the business curriculum. A tale of two teams It was the best of teams ... it was the worst of teams. That pretty much sums up the 1984-85 version of the VCU Rams basketball team. While the talented squad won both the regular season Sun Belt Confer- ence championship and the league tournament, the team made an early exit from the NCAA Tournament despite being listed as one of the top seeded teams in the nation. That the Rams set a school record with 26 victories this season was hardly surprising. VCU returned nine lettermen from last year's 23-7 squad. In addition, all five starters were on hand from a year ago, including All-Sun Belt choice Calvin Duncan and Mike Schlegel. Surprising Rolando Lamb, who ended the season as the team's leading scorer, teamed with Duncan to form one of the top guard combinations in the nation. Duncan has been voted All-Sun Belt in each of the last three years, but Lamb, one of the most improved players in the conference, won first team recognition this year. Center Mike Schlegel, the MVP of the Sun Belt Tournament, helped VCU on the inside and probably most typified the team's style — the emphasis on the wor1< ethic. VCU became only the second team in the history of intercolle- giate basketball to have four 1 ,000-point scorers on the floor at the same time when Michael Brown reached the plateau in the opening round of the NCAA Tournament. Duncan, Lamb, and Schlegel were the others. Brown teamed with defensive specialist Neil Wake at forv\/ard. Senior Robert Dickerson added offensive firepower off the bench. The 26-6 record was the best in VCU annals and the 12-2 mark in Sun Belt play put the Rams in first place. The Rams won the last eight league games in succes- sion to earn the top seed in the tournament, which was played in Hampton. The team rolled through the Sun Belt Tournament In impressive fashion, whipping North Carolina Charlotte, 85-62, in the opening round. The Rams routed Jackson- ville, 75-57, in the semifinals. In the championship, VCU took on state rival Old Dominion. The game, which was televised nationwide by ESPN, resulted in a 87-82 Ram win over the Monarchs. In the NCAA West Region Tournament in Albuquerque, New Mexico, VCU toppled Marshall 81-65 in the opening round. But tough Alabama from the powerful Southeast Confer- ence ended the Rams' season. many thought prematurely, with a 63-59 upset. Though the season ended on a disappointing note for the VCU faithful, the season was a record- setting one in which the Rams were ranked as high as 11th in the nation by both the Asso- ciated Press and United Press International. J. D. Barnett, the winningest coach in VCU history, accepted the coaching reins at Tulsa following the season. Ultra- successful Mike Pollio, a Ram assistant coach from 1973-75, was hired on May 10 to continue the winning tradition. Pollio's teams at Kentucky Wesleyan advanced to the Final Four of Division II three of the last four years. His five-year record with the Panthers was an incredible 117-35. With the return of Michael Brown and Nicky Jones after an injury, the basketball coaching staff has been busy lining up recruits for the future. — Mike Ballweg Sports Injurmatum Direcun Award recipients of the MCV Alumni Association of VCU The Medical College of Virginia Alumni Association of VCU has awarded Dr Harry Lyons the as- sociation's Outstanding Alumnus Award. Lyons was recognized for his service in dental education, dedication to professionalism, and continuing inspiration and support to dentistry students. A 1923 graduate of MCV, Lyons served as dean of the School of Dentistry from 1950-70. He is a past president of the Virginia State Dental Association, the American Dental Association, the Association of Dental Schools, and the American Col- lege of Dentists. The award was presented in May at the 96th an- nual meeting of the association. The alumni association also awarded John Curtis Nottingham of Williamsburg the Distinguished Pharmacy Alumnus Award for his contributions to the profession, dedication to public service, and leadership. A 1935 graduate of MCV, Nottingham is past pres- ident of the American Pharma- ceutical Association and former executive secretary of the Vir- ginia Pharmaceutical Associa- tion. The award was presented in May at the fifth annual meeting of the association's pharmacy division. 23 c A M Periodontal achievement The International Association for Dental Research has named a VCU professor of periodontics the recipient of its 1985 Research in Periodontal Diseose Award. Dr Richard R. Ranney, director of VCU's Clinical Research Center for Periodontal Disease, received the award which was established to recognize, en- courage, and stimulate out- standing research achievements in basic research in periodontal disease, Ranney was one of the first researchers to provide direct evidence for the role of immunity in the development of periodon- tal disease. His research stimu- lated a worldv/ide interest in hypersensitivity mechanisms in the gums; these basic studies have been called classics in experimental periodontology. The research center Ranney directs at VCU is one of only three such centers in the country. Virginia Institute for Developmental Disabilities The development of an interdis- ciplinary institute at VCU for the research and training of profes- sionals to serve persons with developmental disabilities and handicaps has been funded by the U,S, Department of Health and Human Services, Through this grant and funds provided by VCU, the Virginia Institute for Developmental DIsobilities will allow university personnel throughout the aca- demic disciplines to train to- gether to fill specialized roles within the developmental disabilities service system. Along with members of state and local agencies, these professionals will implement programs that serve disabled individuals and im- prove the competence of persons currently working within the developmental disabilities professions. As a "satellite center" of the program at Georgetown Univer- sity in Washington, DC, VCU will have the first universit/ affiliated program in Virginia. Dr, Howard Garner, associate professor of education, will direct the institute. The institute will sponsor national symposia and work- shops dealing with transitional services and employment opportunities for persons with developmental disabilities such as cerebral palsy, mental retardation, autism, and physical disabilities with lifelong effects. Gathering research data and developing effective methods of disseminating the results will be another goal, as well as a series of conference presentations that will provide a forum for public discussion and debate concern- ing the institute's overall goals and objectives. Joint planning activities for the institute include faculty from VCU's Schools of Medicine, Allied Health Professions, Social Work, Education, Community and Public Affairs; the Department of Psychology; and the Rehabilita- tion Research and Training Center. Participating communitv agencies include the State Department of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, the State Developmental Disabilities ' Council, and the Richmond Association for Retarded Citizens. Natural pain control Research on stress-induced analgesia, which began in VCU laboratories in the mid-1970s, has evolved to the point that the New York Academy of Sciences recently sponsored its first Inter- national Conference on Stress- Induced Analgesia. Lead conference speaker. Dr. Ronald L, Hayes, notes that the original research on the topic was published from work he did as a student in Dr. David Mayer's labs in 1976. Hayes, now an assistant professor of surgery at VCU, spoke on The Range of Environmental Stimuli that Produce Analgesia." Mayer, professor of physiology and biophysics, and Dr Linda R. Watkins, assistant professor of physiology and biophysics, also represented VCU at the confer- ence, Mayer spoke on "Multiple Endogenous Pain Modulatory Systems" and Watkins' topic was "Opoid and Non-Opoid Stress Analgesia Induced by Varying the Location of Shock," The purpose of the confer- ence, as stated by the New York Academy of Sciences, was for participants to "evaluate each other's paradigms and analgesi- metric techniques, to identify new lines of investigation and theory, and to consider carefully the ethical issues involved in research on stress and pain," Papers presented at the conference are to be published as a single topic volume of the Annals of the New York Aca- demy of Sciences. Sight savings Research to Prevent Blindness (RPB) has made a grant to VCU's Department of Ophthalmology for the study of blinding diseases. This contribution represents a 1 7 percent increase in the amount of funds provided annually by RPB to the Department of Ophthalmology for the advance- ment of eye research. Dr. Andrew P. Ferry, depart- ment chairman, says the in- crease in RPB support is a critical factor in meeting the opportuni- ties for sight-saving research that are emerging with technological advances. According to Ferry, "We are now managing eye disorders that once would have led to certain blindness. "What's more," he says, "our research on diseases of the eye is contributing significantly to the knowledge and, we hope, to the management of neurological disorders, diabetes, and other systemic afflictions." RPB, which provides support to 56 U.S. institutions, is the world's leading voluntary organization in support of eye research; it has channeled over S45 million into the study of blinding diseases. Health behavior of gradeschoolers The continuation of an all-state research project initiated at VCU in 1983-84 has been funded by the American Heart Association. The grant, administered by Dr Lee Pratt, associate professor of health education, initially in- volved 5,000 tenth and 12th grade high school students and entering college freshmen in Virginia. This year, about 5,000 students in the second and fifth grades will be involved through- out the state. Baseline data with expected levels of knowledge are being determined and compared with national norms, and data on student health behaviors have been compiled and compared to test score outcomes. Pratt currently is working with the State Department of Educa- tion to revise the Public School Curriculum Guide, based on the results of her research. In addition she coordinates the State Task Force, which includes five universities, the State Department of Education, and the Virginia affiliate of the American Heart Association, Studying the encouragement of eugenics Eugenics, the study of hereditary improvement by genetic control, is the subject of a research grant recently awarded Dr. J. John Palen of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology by the Rockefeller Foundation. The grant is designed to study the effects of eugenic-based population policies in Singapore. Singapore's fertility program, intended to increase fertilify among its college-educated, married women, involves a tax structure that encourages affluent, well-educated couples to have three or more children. In addition, the government provides the children of these couples with preferential place- ments in the city's most selective schools, Palen plans to assess the reactions of Singapore's citizens to their government's induce- ments. The research project also will analyze how the program affects demographic factors. Sloan research fellow Dr James Terner, assistant professor of chemistry, has been awarded an Alfred P Sloan Research Fellowship for 1985-87, The grant provides 525,000 over the two-year period and will fund a research project designed to study the series of fundamental processes that occur within various chemical reactions. Using lasers and stroboscopic techniques, Terner will investigate how enzymes work. Another aspect of his research will examine the individual chemical reactions that plants undergo as they collect light from the sun. Considered to be among the most prestigious national re- search grants, Sloan Fellowships are awarded to outstanding young academic researchers who demonstrate potential for contributing significant new 24 knowledge to the scientific disciplines, Eacti year, the Sloan Foundation Program Committee reviews 400 nominations from which only 90 Fellows are selected. Of these, only 23 fellowships are awarded in the field of chemistry. A common affliction Dr. John M. Kellum, professor of surgery, has received a 845,000 grant from Merck, Sharp and Dome to study a new antibiotic treatment for diverticulitis. The condition, a complication of diverticulosis. Is a common and sometimes lethal Infection of the large Intestine. The condition begins when the wall of the intestine loses its muscular tone, and small pock- ets, called diverticula, form. When solid material becomes trapped in the pockets, the intestine becomes inflamed, causing abdominal pain. This inflammation, or diverticulitis, may lead to the formation of an abscess, or a fistula, which is an abnormal connection between the intestine and other abdomi- nal organs. Surgery is often indicated with the need tor a temporary colostomy. The prevalence of the diverti- culosis in adults over 65 is nearly 35 percent; the occurrence by age 85 Is more than 65 percent. Because the elderly are most affected by the disease, further complications often develop. It Is estimated that more than 11 million people In the United States suffer from some form of diverticulosis, owing to the lack of bulky foods and roughage in the Western diet. Kellum will Investigate what type of medical treatment Is most successful in reducing intestinal inflammation and avoiding surgery and its asso- ciated complications. Immunocompetence An interdisciplinary group of basic health scientists from the university has been designated the National Toxicology Pro- gram's laboratory for immuno- logical research. The principal investigators for this project are Dr. Albert E. Munson, professor, and Dr. Michael P. Holsapple, assistant professor. Department of Phar- macology and Toxicology; Dr. S. Gaylen Bradley, dean of the School of Basic Health Sciences; Dr. Francine Marciano-Cabral, assistant professor, and Dr. Thalachallour Mohanakumar, professor. Department of Micro- biology and Immunology; and Dr. Kimber L. White, assistant professor. Department of Blostatlstics. The five-year award totals S2.24 million. The primary work of the laboratory will be investigat- ing the effects of drugs and chemicals on immunocompe- tence. The selection of the substances to be studied will be based on their potential for environmental impact and their overall importance to the National Toxicology Program. Using animal cells and tissues, studies will attempt to define the possible sites and mechanisms of chemical action, and the risk to human populations that might be exposed to the selected substances. Sociological forum VCU's 15th annual Sociological Research Symposium focused on "Religion in Contemporary Politics." Designed as a forum for sociologists throughout the mid- Atlantic region, the symposium was created to provide a means for faculty and students to share information dealing with a wide range of research projects involving social problems and human welfare. This year's keynote speaker was University of Virginia's Dr. Ted Caplow. Presentations by over 100 participants addressed contemporary issues concerning gerontology, sexuality, juvenile delinquency, and criminology. Other subjects covered included the family, student culture, and sociology and social policy. Sociology faculty members and students representing 25 colleges and universities led a series of panel discussions throughout the symposium. Nurse specialists A book exploring the various roles of clinical nurse specialists has been written and coedited by Ann B. Hamric, assistant director of nursing education, and Judy Spross, a graduate clinical nurse specialist. The Clinical Nurse SpecialisI in Theory and Practice examines the development, current state, and future of practice by clinical nurse specialists — a master's prepared nurse who specializes In one area of clinical nursing M Martha D. Berliner, professor and chairman of the Depart- ment of Biology, has been elected a fellow of the British Royal Microscopical Society. Her research on strain improvement In industrial microalgae was highlighted In High Technology In an article on marine biotechnol- ogy; she presented a paper "Genetic Modification In Mi- croalgae" at the Solar Energy Research Institute Program Review; she presented a paper with Barry Rosen on "Protoplast Induction on Chlorella" a\ the American Society of Cell Biol- ogy; and she attended the International Biotech '84 conference. Lynn Z. Bloom, professor of English, has published Fad and Artifact: Writing Nonfiction. She also presented two papers, "Growing Up Female In Ameri- can Autobiographies" and "False Feminization of the Journal" at the Modern Lan- guage Association meeting. Martin Bloom, professor of social wort<, has published Lifespan Development: Bases for Preventative and Innovative Helping, second edition. James H. Boykin, professor of real estate and urban land development, has been se- lected a Fellow of the Homer Hoyt Institute School of Post Doctoral and Advanced Studies in Land Economics. He also was recently featured on "Financial Enterprise," a national public broadcasting system program dedicated to informing the American public on Issues that affect their dally lives. Chestina Brollier, assistant professor of occupational therapy, has received an Ameri- can Occupational Therapy Foundation research grant for "A Pilot Study of Job Burnout in Registered Occupational Therapists." David Bromley, professor and chairman. Department of Sociology and Anthropology, presented a paper "Financing the Millennium: The Economic Structure of the Unification Church" at a symposium at the University of Nebraska. He also was invited to address the Virginia Sociological Association. Patricia Jotinson Brown, assistant professor of recreation, spoke on the topic "Communi- cation Skills: Making Yourself Effective," at the first Leadership Training Institute, sponsored by the Virginia Recreation and Park Society. Russell V. Brown, professor of biology, has published two papers in The Greyhound Review on "Calculation of Inbreeding" and "Linebreedlng." George W. Burke, emeritus professor of restorative dentistry, was recognized at the annual meeting of the Virginia Dental Association for his talents and contributions as editor of the Virginia Dental Journal from 1971-84. Joseph P. Bush, assistant professor of psychology, has been elected treasurer of the Virginia Psychological Association. Rosemary S. Caffarella, associate professor and chair- man. Division of Educational Studies, presented a paper "Adult Development: Implica- tions for Learning In Adulthood" to the Greater Richmond Inserv- ice Directors. She also presented "Beyond Publish or Perish: Incentives and Disincentives of Doing Research" at the Commis- sion of Professors of Adult Educa- tion conference in Louisville, Kentucky. 25 Thomas Carlton, associate professor of social work, has published Clinical Social Work in Health Settings: A Guide to Professional Practice witti Exem- plars. He also has published with Barbara Bert<man Development of Healthi Social Work Curricula: Patterns and Processes in Three Programs of Social Work Educa- tion. He has published with Barbara Berkman and Hans Faick "The Use of Theoretical Constraints and Research Data to Establish a Base for Clinical Social Work in Health Settings," Social Work in Health Care, Volume 10, Ann Creighton-Zollar, assistant professor of sociology and Afro-American studies and acting coordinator of Afro- American studies, has published a book A Member of the Family: Strategies for Black Family Continuity. George T. Crutchfield, director of the School of Mass Communications, served on a panel to select winners of the eighth annual Times-Dispatch Community Service Awards. He also has been named vice- president of Kappa Tau Delta, a national journalism and mass communications society. Patricia T. Davis, instructor In community and psychiatric nursing, and Chun-Wai Chan, assistant professor of internal medicine and director. University Heolth Services, presented a paper "Promoting Health Behav- iors: Does the Health Risk Ap- praisal Work?" at the annual meeting of the American Col- lege Health Association. Rutiedge M. Dennis, associ- ate professor of sociology and anthropology, was recently elected to the Board of Trustees of the National Assault on Illiteracy Program and given a Certificate of Merit award by the organization at Its national meeting In Washington, D.C. Murry DePillors, dean of the School of the Arts, spent a month In Penang, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, as an academic specialist advising on curriculum, physical plant, outreach, promo- tion, and recruitment. George Dintiman, professor of education and chairman. Division of Health and Physical Education, completed a video with an NBC crew and the Dallas' Cowboys on "Speed and Explosion." William H. Duvall, dean of student affairs, has been named secretary/treasurer of the Virginia Association of Student Personnel Administrators for 1985. William F. Eglehoff, director of Elderhostel for the Virginia Center on Aging, has been elected to the national steering committee of Elderhostel. Vivien K. Ely, professor of education, was named the 1984 recipient of the Distinguished Service Award given by the Marketing and Distributive Education Division of the Ameri- can Vocational Association. Hans FaIck, professor of social wor1<, delivered a keynote address to the Sixth Annual Meeting of the Committee for the Advancement of Social Work with Groups In Chicago. Susan F. Feiner, assistant professor of economics, deliv- ered a paper "The Household Class Process and Imperialism: An Alternative View of the Family Wage" at the American Eco- nomic Association meeting In Dallas, Texas. Michael L. Fine, assistant professor of biology, presented a paper at the annual meeting of the Society of Neurosclence and has published several papers on neurobiology of sound produc- tion In fish. Robert W. Fisher, associate professor of biology, won the best poster award for his presen- tation on "The Azolla Associa- tion — Harnessing a Biological Catalyst" at the Mid-Atlantic Developmental Conference. He also presented papers and poster sessions at the meetings of the American Society of Plant Physiologists. Anne Fortune, associate professor of social work, has published Task-Centered Prac- tice with Families and Groups. She also has published "The Problem Solving Ability of Social Work Students" In the Journal of Education for Social Work. Gloria Francis, professor of community and psychiatric nursing, has coauthored "Domes- tic Animal Visitation as Therapy with Adult Home Residents" to be published by the International Journal of Nursing Studies. She also presented a paper "Pets and the Elderly: An Encounter" at the Virginia Recreation and Park Society Workshop. David D. Franks, associate professor of sociology and anthropology, has edited a special Issue of the journal Symbolic Interaction on emo- tions. He presented a paper at the Eastern Sociological Associa- tion on Depressive Emotions, Power, and Role-taking In Philadelphia and was the discussant at two sessions at the Southern Sociological Associa- tion meetings in Charlotte. James E. Gates, associate professor of biology, presented a poster at the meeting of the American Society for Microbiol- ogy and at the Virginia Aca- demy of Science where two of his students were awarded second and third place for their research and presentations. William Goggin, assistant professor of teacher education, and Daisy Reed, associate professor of teacher education, presented "Student Teachers of a Different Kind" at the southeast regional conference of the Association of Teacher Educators. Lazar J. Greenfield, professor and chairman of the Depart- ment of Surgery, was guest speaker at the International College of Angiology meeting in Tours, France, presenting "Surgi- cal Approaches to Thromboem- bolism." He was a speaker at the Bicentenary Meeting of the International College of Surgeons of Ireland and delivered the W. Alton Jones Lecture at the University of Missouri, Columbia, "Right Ventricular Dysfunction In Resuscitation." Ralph Hambrick, associate professor of public administra- tion, chaired a panel at the joint annual meeting of the American Council on Education and the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges on "The Expanding Professional Service Role for American Higher Education." Daniel A. Herbert, assistant clinical professor of pharmacy, was awarded the 1984 Albert E. Rosica, Jr. Memorial Award in recognition of outstanding contributions to pharmacy education. Herbert Is currently second vice-president elect of the Virginia Pharmacy Association. Herbert Hirsch, professor and chairman of the Department of Political Science, presented a paper "Why People Kill: Condi- tions for Participation In Mass Murder." He also has been elected a member of the Virginia Regional Advisory Board, B'nal B'rith Anti-Defama- tion League. Evelyn A. Jez, instructor In English, recently gave a continu- ing education program for the nursing staff of the Southslde Virginia Training Center "Sexism: The Social Disease of the Medi- cal Profession." She also served as one of four presenters for an all-day continuing education conference for the Petersburg School of Nursing. Her topic was "The Impact of Feminism Upon the Nursing Profession." She has been elected vice-president of the Richmond Human Rights Coalition Foundation for 1985-89. Beverly Koering, associate professor of social wor1<, has published "Women as Home- makers: How Social Workers Can Help" In Social Casework: The Journal of Contemporary Social Work. Michael Kolevzon, associate professor of social work, has published "Conflict and Change Along the Continuum in Social Wor1< Education" in the Journal of Education for Social Work. Daniel M. Laskin, professor and chairman. Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, has published a book Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. He was the recipient of the Distinguished Alumnus Award from the Indiana University School of Dentistry for 1984. Marcia J. Lawton, associate professor of rehabilitation coun- seling and director. Alcohol and Drug Education/Rehabilitation Program, was recently honored at a banquet marking the tenth annlversan/ of the Alcohol and Drug Education/Rehabilitation Program. Ardyth J. Lohuis, associate professor of music, has been appointed to the national standing committee on chapter development of the American Guild of Organists and reap- pointed chairman of the Virginia chapter of the American Guild of Organists. Richard S. Luck, associate professor of rehabilitation coun- seling. Is serving as a consultant In Santa Catarina, Brazil, on behavior therapy and behavior modification techniques for use with mentally retarded persons. As part of the program, he has conducted seminars In Santa Catarina. Margaret May, associate professor of biology, has pub- lished a book Medical Terminol- ogy, which has been adopted as a textbook by the medical records program of the univer- sity's School of Allied Health Professions. Sara M. McCowan, assistant professor of biology, has been appointed to the Virginia 26 Academy of Science's govern- ing board and serves on its membership committee. She attended the University of Chicago Institute on "Critical Thinking and the Formation of Values." James P. Morgan, assistant professor of administration of justice and public safety and executive director of Public Safety and Business Services, made a presentation at the Agency for International Devel- opment to officials from Vitoria- Gasteiz, Spain. Dennis Poole, assistant professor of social work, has published DisabilHy, Work, and Social Policy with coauthor Aliki Coudargolu. Walter Ramey, assistant professor of education, was elected chairman of the Rich- mond Chapter of the Society of l\/lanufacturing Engineers and president of the VCU chapter of Phi Delta Kappa. He conducted inservice programs on compe- tency based vocational educa- tion for Hopewell and Charlottes- ville/Albemarle vocational teachers. Judy Richardson, assistant professor of education, was elected vice-president of Vir- ginia College Reading Educa- tors. She presented "Adolescent Study Behavior" at the Virginia Library Association's meeting and "Computer-Assisted Instruc- tion for Adult Beginning Read- ers—Can It Work?" at the Col- lege Reading Association's Conference in Washington, D.C. Warren Strandberg, professor of education, presented "A Poetic for Education: An Invita- tion to an Aesthetic View of the Educational Enterprise" to the Association of Teacher Educators. Mabel Wells, associate professor of social work, has published "The Classroom Teaching of Social Work Prac- tice" in the Journal of Education for Social Work. Nelson Wikstrom, associate professor of political science, presented a paper, "More than Meets the Eye: Red Flags and Other Storm Signals in American Politics" at the annual confer- ence of Virginia Political Scientists. Joseph Zanga, associate professor of pediatrics, has been elected president of the Virginia chapter of the American Aca- demy of Pediatrics. You certainly deserve the "Tacky Award" for your male nude art in the fall 1984 VCU Magazine ["Male-male bonding and the communal spirit"]. I was left wondering whether I was being victimized by a sexually frustrated female artist projecting her sexual fantasies to the world or a homosexual male artist with an unrepressed desire to share his lusts. — Man/ia// S. Vau^hiin B.S. business. /966; M.S. 1969 Thanks very much for the article about the Philadelphia Com- muter Train Station in the VCU Magazine ["The fine art of Verlin Miller," winter 1985]. The article is the most accurate in all the press I have seen on the train station mural. Of course, it was nice to get more attention than the architect for once! Also, I want to say how hand- some the whole magazine looks. And "The Church in Nicaragua" [winter 1985] was fascinating. — Verlin Mdler B.F.A. communication arts and cfesign, 1975 The article in the winter issue, entitled "The Church in Nicara- gua," by the poor, deluded, supercilious sap, Pendleton: Shouldn't you have heavily emphasized the "THE," since it's obviously chiefly a promotion of one particular sect? I, for one, bitterly resent the use of our alumni magazine for this pseudo-intellectual lightweight's attack on my church and on our country's foreign policy, under the guise of sweet piety and the usual tiresome, holier-than-thou liberalism. And please don't call it "journalism." One-side-of-the- story reporting isn't journalism. It's propaganda. That's why there are no Soviet journalists, only propagandists. Can Pendleton honestly expect anyone besides his fellow rednecks to believe that the situation in Nicaragua consists chietty in a bunch of dirty Catholic Somocistas, with the approval of the Pope and President Reagan, rampaging around raping and murdering good Protestant communists? I can think of any number of good Protestant outspoken clergy who find It as impossible to reconcile the notions of "Christian" and "Communist" as do the Pope and the Bishops, regardless of who is alleged to be raping and murdering while ca/Z/ng them- selves "Christian." I suggest that in his puerile, cheerleader eagerness to promote his own sectarian and extremely narrow views (the tragic and scandalous problem in the mission fields, to say nothing of Northern Ireland and other Christian (?) locales for centuries), he has become the all-too-willing dupe of Soviet divide-and-conquer imperialism, though he protests, predictably, that the Soviets and their Cuban tools have no real influence on the Sandinista "revolution." He found a few priests and nuns to agree with him? Given the spotlight of public attention, some fools will babble anything to demonstrate what "original thinkers" they would like to be perceived as being. Witness the nightly television newscasts. Or "The Church in Nicaragua." If the English department is so hard up for personnel that it has to employ this thinly-disguised bigot, do you have to publish him? in the alumni magazine? Or do you admire his views? At any rate, I seem to have missed the news of VCU's transition from a state-supported institution to a private sectarian propaganda mill, where, be- cause public funding is no longer involved, the church-state separation laws no longer apply, and people like Pendleton are therefore free to propagate their own "religion." (What kind of religion is anti-Catholicism, anyway? Who, besides Madalyn Murray O'Hair, goes around preaching what they don't believe?) Finally, there's that fascinating illustration! A Sandinista angel? Good God, a communist, atheist Angel? And straight from the Sistine Chapel ceiling, ap- parently! Ludicrous! Christian Communists? Atheis- tic Angels? Talk about Orwell's "doublethink!" 1984 was last year But it isn't over yet, is it? Remove my name from your mailing list. And, of course, since I do not intend to support any church save my own (plus, of course, the Salvation Army, Moral Majority, Billy Graham, etc.), I will also have my name removed from the alumni Annual Giving list. — ;/dmes }. Keih, Jr. M.S. psyd^obgy, 1957 Many thanks for Professor James Pendleton's "The Church in Nicaragua" in the winter issue of the VCU Magazine. Also, the inset sketch of U.S.-Nlcaragua relations was effectively done. Along with two colleagues from our faculty, I was there last July and received the same impressions Professor Pendleton received through his interviews. Every good wish to the Maga- zine and thanks for all the good work that goes into carefully prepared articles. — H. McKennie Goodpasture F. S. Royster Professor of Christian Missions Union Theoiogicai Seminary, Ricfimomi I have recently arrived at my new assignment in San Salvador, El Salvador, and found the VCU Magazine in my forwarded mail. I want to thank you and your staff for an excellent job well done. The VCU Magazine has followed me around the world in my assignments with the U.S. Depart- ment of State. P.S. My means of travel to El Salvador was sailing my Nauti- cat52 from Turku, Finland, to Isia de Roatan (Bay Islands), Honduras. ^ames G. Trum B.S. business. 1967 Financial Manager American Embassy San SalvaJbr I thoroughly enjoyed DelDorah Sloan's minute-by-minute ac- count of a day in the life of her third-year medical student brother, Geoffrey [winter 1985]. I think that we have all seen so many television shows about hospital life that we forget about the actual rigor of medical student, resident, and intern life. Miss Sloan's clean and sparse prose gave me all the informa- tion I wanted to know, yet kept me wanting to read more about this day in the life of a medical student. It was also gratifying to note the author is a graduate of VCU's ; School of Mass Communications. ' Obviously, she is learning her craft well. — -John H. Bargard Assistant Dean College of Humanities and Sciences 27 D A With university enrollments declining on campuses nationwide and with colleges literally waging com- petitive war for top-notch stu- dents, a new emphasis has been placed on student recruitment. It is no longer enough for universities to send admissions representatives to college nights at local high schools and vie for the attention of thousands of students from hundreds of other institutions of higher learning. Nor is it enough to expect that students will rush to our admis- sions offices without being recruited. Students of the '80s want more. Incoming freshmen want to be sure they are getting the most for their college dollar. High school juniors and seniors apply to many more schools than they used to. Their selectiveness has encouraged universities to stay on their toes and keep abreast of the competition. We at VCU have been trying to find new ways of effectively reaching these first-rate students; you as recipients of a VCU education can help. We need you to become Ambassadors, to volunteer a small amount of your time to call or write your local high school students whom we have accepted for admission. We need you to tell them about your college days and how much VCU has meant to you. With your help, we can show our prospective students thot our alumni care enough to stay actively involved with the univer- sity. Your recommendation of us will not only help guarantee the value of your degree but also assist us in ensuring the quality of students that come to VCU. Please join us in this program by filling out the "Active Alum- nus" response form on page 31 Stephen C. Harvey Director, VCU Alumni Activities VIRGINIA COMMONWEALTH UNIVERSITY ALUMNI COUNCIL Preildenr— J Dale Bimion Ptesioent— D' Allon l/onotVCO Hodges. Ji VCU Alumni AssocloMo Presidenl— J Dole Bims n(AcodemicDlviiiOnt D' OoviOC Whlre^eaa Jr Cra,.man Bouc Sciences Divii)On Chai'tnan Dt Hermei A Hon ice Bu*neu Oi».uon I'rewclenl f OLKatiOn Division President RcOe" A Hamilton, J( 1 Socioi Wort Divis PievOeni Wilhom P PaWon Cl>a.rmc 1 1 vision All.ea Heolth Diviwor Ccnwrnjnitv orvl Public Altaifi Humanilies ond Sciences Chairman Division President OivUkxi President Oowae' Moiv Be'h Poppa-. JomeiDFo. BeniommS Hyman 1946 Marjorle B. Adams (St Philip nursing) retired from the Baltimore City Heolth Department, Bureau of School Health Services. 1947 Ralph S. RIffenburgh (M D) spent two weeks lest year on Eoster Island working in the hospital. He was the first ophthalmologist ever fo be on the island. 1948 Laura M. Montgomery (B S physical therapy) is retired from nursing and teaching. She writes poetry, 1951 George J. Jonosik (B,S, phar- macy) retired in 1983 after being in business at Central Dajg Company in Hopewell for 32 years, 1953 Jean Godfrey Cook (B S occupa- tional therapy) is in private practice as a consultant for long-term care facilities in Peoria, Illinois, 1956 Felix C. Gotschalk (MS clinical psychology) has retired after 25 years as a psychologist in Louisiana and North Carolina, An author as well, he has had 100 works of fiction published, Pafli G. Robertson (B S physical therapy) is a physical therapist at the Jackson Hospital and Clinic in Montgomery, Alabama. Herman L. West (B.S, physical therapy) is director of physical therapy for Chesapeake General Hospital in Chesapeake, 1957 Percy Wootton (M D) was awarded the 1984 Community Service Award by the Medical Societ/ of Virginia at its annual fall meeting. He is the youngest person to receive this honor in the history of the medical society, 1958 Robert E. Collins (M D) is presi- dent of the District of Columbia Medical Society and has been reelected to the Board of Trustees of Washington Health Care Corporation, Washington, D,C, Non/ell W. West (B FA interior design) is employed by Woodard- West, Limited, where he is an interior designer and secretary of the corporation. 1959 Stephen L. Bissell (D D S ). a faculty member on the MCV Cam- pus, has been named to the Bank of Virginia's Petersburg-Dinwiddle Board. Joseph T. Sakakini (M D.) is professor and associate chairman of the Department of Obstetrics- Gynecology at Texas Tech School of Medicine, 1960 Cecilia C. Sakakini (B.S nursing) Is in the master's program of the School of Nursing at the University of Texas, El Paso, 1962 Edward A. Zakaib (M D ) is a trustee of the Richmond Academy of Medicine, post president of the Richmond Academy of Family Physicians, and medical director of the United Medical Plan of Virginia, 1963 David J. McKinney (pharmacy) has been selected chief pharmacist for Virginia Baptist Hospital in Lynchburg. 1964 G. David Eddleman (MM), of Rockaway, New Jersey, has received his third award from ASCAP and published eight new choral works with Carl Fischer, Shawnee Press, Jensen Publications, and Hal Leonard Publishing Corporation, Willie B. Wright (M,F A painting) was part of o new-member show at the 1708 Gallery in December 1984 in Richmond, Do you have news about yourself for the VCU Magazine ? Ivlail your updates to VCU Magazine, Alumni Update. 826 West Franklin Street, Richmond, VA 23284- 0001. Sometimes we do not get your information in the issue you might expect, but we make every effort to print your updates as soon as possible. Be patient, and look for your update in the next issue. Write to us. 1965 Harry E. "Woody" Eney III (M F A drama) has made numerous televi- sion appearances and has also appeared at the Alley Theatre in Houston, Texas, Sfacey L, McMarlin (M D ), assistant chief of dermatology services at Walter Reed Army Medical Center, became a fellow of the American College of Chemo- surgery in December 1984, 1966 Jane Rollins Ingalls (B S nursing) is associate professor of nursing at Germanna Community College, Locust Grove, Virginia David L. King (B,S, advertising) has been promoted to senior vice- president of MARCOA Direct Advertising, Inc, Chicago, Barbara B. Leaman (M S W) is a clinical social worker with the Virginia Department of Health in Roanoke, J. Kemp Smith (B,S, business) has been promoted to vice-president of the Bank of West Point, Virginia, 1967 Edward J. Kerns, Jr. (B F A ) illustrated a collection of 'prayers for the battle" in the book Guerrillas of Grace In fall 1984, he exhibited his abstract paintings at the Rosa Esman Gallery in New York City, 1968 Norman E. Land (BFA) has been appointed chairman of the Depart- ment of Art History and Archaeology at the University of Missouri-Columbia. Roger D. Neal (MD). an otolaryn- gologist and maxillofacial surgeon, has been elected to serve on the advisory board of Sovran Bank, Abingdon, Betty-Jo M. Norman (BFA) is a self-employed artist in Minnesota, She specializes in portraiture, Teresa T, Stein (B,S pharmacy) is director of pharmaceutical services at the Virginia Baptist Home Phar- macy in Culpeper and is on instructor of pharmacology at Germanna Community College in Locust Grove, Virginia, Nora Miller Tenney (B S, physical therapy) is director of physical therapy at Bryn Mowr Chateau Nursing and Rehabilitation Center in Bryn Mowr. Pennsylvania, 28 1969 John H. Chaulklin, Jr. (B.S. business administration) is o systems analyst for Burlington Industries, Sarah Riley Land (B.FA) has been appointed ctiairman of the art deportment at Stephens College in Columbia, Missouri. John J. Schwartz (B S. accounting) has purchased the Chesterfield Apartments in Richmond. Danny W. Turman (B S general business) is customer service man- ager for Hubbell Lighting Division in Chrlstiansburg. Virginia. 1970 Etta P. Edwards (B.FA, painting and prinfmaking) held an art show at the Richmond Public Library In December 1984. Esther Leiper Estobrooks (B A English) is new/ly published by Inkling Publications, Inc. and is a regular columnist for the North Country Weekly In Jefferson, New Hampshire. Errol R, Flynn (B.S. accounting) is a self-employed CPA. 1971 Charles E. Brady III (M D.) has been promoted to Colonel and Is chairman of the Department of Gastroenterology, Wllford Hall USAF Medical Center, Lackland Air Force Base. Catherine V. Caufhorne (B S nursing) is o management consultant with the Department of Human Resources at Norfolk General Hospital and has completed qualifying exams on her Ph.D. Mark Q. Emick (B.S. history and social science education) Is assistant to the president at Virginia Western Community College Norman B. Harris (B S. histon/ and social science education) is the new pastor at Swift Creek Baptist Church in Colonial Heights. M. DIanne Murphy (M D ) is associate professor and head of pediatric infection and also director of Inpatient seivices at the University of Tennessee, Knoxvlile. John E. Nickens (B.M.E.) is the new pastor at Shiloh (New Site) Baptist Church in Fredericksburg. Jerry G. Overman (B S. manage- ment) is second vice-president and manager of the Investment services division. Continental Financial Services Company, Richmond. Anthony J. Puccinelli (B.S accounting) has been promoted to president of Titmus Optical, Inc. in Petersburg, 1972 Ronald L. Caricofe (MS business) has been appointed vice-president/ treasurer and senior accounting officer for Concrete Pipe and Products Company. William R. Davis (B S. psychology) has joined the trust department of Dominion Bank in Roanoke. Edward V. Jones III (M.S. rehabili- tation counseling), a faculty member in the Department of Education at George Mason University, has received recognition from the U.S. Department of Education for his work with adult illiterates. His book, Reading Instruction for the Adult Illiterate, was published in 1981. Empsy M. W. Munden (B S pharmacy) is assistant director of pharmacy at Chesapeake General Hospital and is president-elect of the Virginia Society of Hospital Pharmacists. Paul R. Munson (M.F.A. sculpture) exhibited eight new sculptures and more than 14 drawings at an art exhibition held at Bridgewoter College, Harrisonburg Michael W. Noblefte (B S business administration) Is assistant vice- president for the Page Valley National Bank In Luray. Robert S. Tucker (B.S. advertising) has been named marketing director of the Covington Virginian. 1973 John P. Dworak (B.FA. communi- cation arts and design) Is a medio production coordinator for the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts and is an adjunct faculty member in VCU's Department of Communication Arts and Design. Darlene Brown Litton (M D ) has been named chief of staff of Lone- some Pine Hospital in Big Stone Gap, Virginia. Linda P. Taylor (B.FA. fashion design) has been named director of a new customer service department at Miller & Rhoods. Richmond. 1974 Carlton J, Bagley, Jr. (B S business administration) Is with ADP-Colllsion Estimating Services In Rolling Mead- ows, Illinois. Rexford F. Beckwith III (B S. management) recently was selected administrator of Rappahannock Westminster-Canterbury, a new nonprofit life core retirement facility In Rappahannock. Lynn A. Doss (B.S. social welfare) is a social wor1<er with the city of Richmond. Janet Rowell Driscoll (B FA communication arts and design) for the lost four years has been co-owner of Kidd and Company, a design and communications firm In Tallahassee, Florida. George H. St. George (M H A ) has joined the Sisters of Mercy Health Corporation and has been ap- pointed chief executive officer of Mercy Community Hospital, Port Jervis, New York. 1975 John A. Christopher, Jr. (B.S mass communications) has been promoted to state editor of the Tampa Tribune of Tampa, Florida. Virginia Forrar Diggs (M Ed elementan/ education) addressed teachers, administrators, and staff of Brunswick County Public Schools In South Hill, Virginia, on the topic, "Bridging the Gap: Improving Communication between the Educational System and the Commu- nity," during American Education Week. Donald C. Garabedian (B S accounting) has recently rejoined the San Francisco office of Coopers & Lybrand as on audit manager. Valerie J. Hunt (MS nursing) is director of nursing education at St. Elizabeth's Hospital In Boston Stephanie J. Masquelier- McCaulla (M.Ed, distributive education. B.S. retailing. 1970) is chairman of the Business Division of Longvlew Community College in Kansas City, Missouri. She teaches marketing courses and oversees business, data processing, and office science courses. David M. Rockmore (M D ). a pediatrician/flight surgeon for the USPHS-USCG, recently has been transferred to Kodlak, Alaska. 1976 Catherine S. Hargan (B S social welfare) is in her eighth year as a senior social wor1<er for New Kent County Social Seivices. Thomas R. Harrison (MS business administration) recently was ap- pointed vice-president at the Bank of Virginia In Tysons Corner, McLean. G. Byron Peck (B.FA. painting and prinfmaking) is a freelance artist in Washington. DC. and recently had selections of his art chosen to be Included in the 1985 editions of the Washington, D.C., and the New York Art Directors Annual. 1977 Marilyn Ann Fitzgerald (B S business administration and mange- ment) has been named an assistant vice-president for the Bank of Virginia, Richmond. Steven C, Hoelscher (M.H.A.) is an administrator with the Hospital Corporation of America in Tennessee. Richard S, Niess (B.S. business administration and management) is president of Niess & Associates — Real Estate Appraisers, Richmond. Robert M. Spencer (M.D ) is a Major in the United States Army stationed at Brooke Army Medical Center, San Antonio, Texas. Jeanne B. Stinchcomb (MS administration of justice) has com- pleted her Ph.D. in the VCU social policy and social work program. She Is currently employed as director of training in the Dade Count/ Correc- tions and Rehabilitation Department. Miami. Florida. Thomas A. Sutterfield (B S business administration) is a project communications consultant for Reynolds Metals Company. Richmond Lynn T Taylor (B.S. marketing) has accepted a job as an insurance agent for Equitable Insurance Company in Georgia Wirt L. Thompson III (M.H A ) has been named community relations field representative of Appalachian Regional Hospitals. Shirley A. Wilson (MS nursing) is on assistant professor of nursing at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Please notify us of your change of address o <D <D ^e <D-e D LO "c 9? (D "O 9. "o 2 o E 5-d »= ^ "D 5g2 Q. r28 o c o ^1& Print clearly OLD ADDRESS Name Address City State NEW ADDRESS Zip Code Name Address City State Zip Code Send to Alumni Records Officer Advancement Services Virginia Commonwealth University 828 West Franklin Street Richmond, VA 23284-0001 (804) 257-1217 Important Note: If this magazine Is addressed to an alumnus who no longer lives at the address printed on the address label, please advise us so that we can correct our records. If you know the person's correct address, we would appreciate that information Also, if a husband and wife are receiving more than one copy of the magazine, we would like to know so that we can avoid duplicate mailings. Please provide the names of both Individuals plus the wife's maiden name, if appropriate. 29 1978 William Henry Graybeal (B S pharmacy) has been named director of pharmacy services at Montgomery County Hospital. Douglas A. Heretick (MP A), assistant city manager for the city of Hopewell, was recognized by the Virginia Joycees as one of the Ten Outstanding Young Virginians. Charles W.Meyer III (MP A community services) is a realtor with C. Porter Vaughan. Inc., Richmond. Keith R. Miller (B.S administration of justice and public safety), a special agent for the U.S Department of Defense, has been transferred to Richmond. E. Douglas Pratt (M S.W.) recently was presented the Outstanding Dissertation Award 1984-85 by the University of Alabama Graduate School of Social Work. Elizabeth Mather Reed (B A political science), a 1981 graduate of the University of Oregon School of Law, is city attorney for Roseburg, Oregon Velma Scaife (B.S. moss communi- cations), living in Emory, Virginia, has been named the 11 pm anchor for WCYB-TV. Janet Petty Smith (B,S. nursing) received a master's degree in primary core nursing from the University of Man/land Graduate School and is presently employed by the Washington Hospital Center as a cardiac nurse practitioner. 1979 Francis T. Childress (MBA) has been named senior budget analyst for the corporate controller's function of McCormick 8c. Co., Inc., in Lynchburg. Jane Morris Dobyns (Post Bacc Cert, accounting) recently started her own CPA practice in Richmond. Donna Young Ducey (MS nursing) recently was promoted to vice-president of professional services of Radford Community Hospital in Radford, Virginia. Rosemarie Teresa Greyson-Fleg (M.D.) is staff radiologist for the Department of Radiology at Sinai Hospital of Baltimore, Maryland. Charles Kouns (B.S. English education) has been named director of Corporate Communications for S&K in Richmond. He will establish the company's first corporate communi- cations department and will develop programs in investor relations, media relations, employee communications, and community support. Jonathan D. Kuhn (M F A crafts) recently exhibited his Pertroglyph Series, a gem collection, at the Green Hill Center for North Caroline Art in Greensboro. Stephen T. Mitchell (B.S business administration and management) is a subcontracts administrator for Watkins Johnson in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Garry D. Yarbrough (B M E ) has been teaching music in the city of Richmond's elementary program of arts and humanities for six years. 1980 Ann L. Chenoweth (M F A painting and printmaking, B.F.A. 1974) and Thomas E. Chenoweth (M F A. sculpture), sister and brother, recently exhibited their wort<s in the Reynolds/ Minor Gallery in Richmond Gregory L. Duncan (Ph.D. clinical psychology) has been selected as one of the "Outstanding Young Men of America " for 1984. Henrietta A. Green (M Ed administration and supen/ision) is a coordinator for parent education in the Richmond Public Schools where she wor1<s primarily with parents in volunteer programs. Deborah M. Newby (BS mass communications) is a writer in the news bureau at Lynchburg College John F. Porter (B.F.A. communica- tion arts and design) is self-employed with John Porter Design as o freelance illustrotor and graphic designer in Rockville, Maryland. W. B. Schlegel (Cert, accounting) has recently accepted a promotion to a GS-13 position in the IRS National Office in Washington. D.C. 1981 Deborah Atno-Shelfon (M.S.W.) is a social wori<er for the Staunton- Augusta Department of Social Services. James R. Bedenbaugh (MBA) has recently accepted a position as associate director of finance at the corporate headquarters of Charter Medical Corporation in Macon, Georgia. Jeffrey Curling (B.A. history) has received his Master of Divinity degree from the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville, Kentucky. Selby Virginia Frame (B F A. theatre) is director of mar1<eting for a software company and correspon- dent for a local newspaper in Camden, Maine. Julie Gillespie (M Ed. adult education) is the program manager for the Arthritis Foundation, Richmond Tri-Citv Branch. Cathy C. Herndon (MAE) Is an art teacher at Gayle Middle School in Stafford County. She does airbrush artwork and scrimshaw painting and drawing. Brett Lewis (B.F.A. art history) has his own company where he creates fashion accessories for leading American designers including Bill Blass, Oscar de la Rente, Geoffrey Beene, and Albert Coparo. Loreffa V. Mounfcastle (M.SW) is a social wor1<er for United Methodist Family Services in Richmond. Vita L. Press (B.S.W.) is a counselor for Family and Children's Services of Richmond. Susan R, Roebuck (B.S. elemen- tary education) is a teacher for the government of the Virgin Islands. Michael A. Ventrella (B A political science) has received the J.D. degree from the New England School of Law. A Richmond resident writer By Robert Goldblum John Alspaugh gives life to the nneoning of the word "paradox." He is a writer, yet he believes his true talent lies in painting. He Is fascinated with light, yet he lives in a dinnly lit, near-window- less basement apartment. His conversation is filled to overflow- ing with abstract phrases and esoteric concepts, yet he calls himself an imagist, committed to the clean, concrete image. He speaks of his sensitivity forcing him out of the nine-to-five working routine and into the world of poetry and fiction, yet he works construction from time to time and decorates part of his apartment with barbells and dumbbells. He says his recently completed novel is realistic, yet adds, "I hope it's so dreamy, it's real." Given Alspaugh's philosophy on life and literature, the appar- ent contradictions seem per- fectly natural, though they are rarely resolved. He says he is a writer seeking to unify the oppos- ing sides of life: youth and old age, light and darkness, com- edy and tragedy, the real and the dreamlike. And It is in his fiction and poetry where Als- paugh tries to strike a balance between these oppositions. "Great art," he noted, "should show you both sides." In discussing the paradox of the title of his book of poetry. Everything Dark is a Doorway (It won the 1981 National Society of Arts and Letters Award for Literature/Poetry and was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize), the 1979 English graduate explained part of his sometimes obtuse philosophy. "The title refers to negative experiences. If you feel low, like you're at the pit of your life, you can always transform the nega- tive experience into something more enlightened." Alspaugh's fascination with light, or that which is enlight- ened. Is an important part of his writing and his life. "As a philosopher, I'm looking for a unified answer to why we're 30 1982 John M. Cazan, Jr. (M D ) is on the surgery housestaff at Wtieeling Hospital, Medical Parl<, Wheeling, West Virginia. He has completed two years of surgical training at Washing- ton Hospital Center and will return to emergency room residency training this year, Steven R. Jones (B S mass communications) is manager of corporate communications for United Software Security in McLean, Richard A. Joralman II (D D S ) is a dentist with National Health Service Corporation and living in Lockhart, Texas. Theodore D. Lee (B,F,A, painting and printmaking) was an exhibitor in "Next Generation," a showing of work in Dillard Gallery at the Lynchburg Fine Arts Center, Patricia P. Suarez (M P A ) is an evaluation analyst for the Department of Planning/Budget for Virginia, 1983 Jeanne Cartier (MS, nursing) is an instructor at the University of Massa- chusetts, Boston, Norman D. Winegar (MSW) is employed as a psychiatric social worker in the capacity of director, outpatient services in Holston Medicol Health Center in Kingsport, Tennessee, 1984 Elizabeth M. Altice (B,S, account- ing) is a staff accountant for Coopers & Lybrand, Patricia A. Bowman (B S phar- macy) recently passed the Virginia State Board of Pharmacy examina- tion. She is now a registered pharma- cist at Peoples Drug Company in Newport News, Harvey P. Burke (B,S information systems) has been named operations support manager of Blue Cross/Blue Shield of the Virginia Data Center for HealthNet Corporation, Richmond, Daniel J. Chen (Cert, accounting) is a staff accountant for McGadrey Hendrickson and Pullen, Donna K. Dawson (MS gerontol- ogy) has been selected as the project director for the Geriatric Core Assisting program at Piedmont Technical College R. Steven Landes (BS mass communications), a staff writer for the Staunton Daily News Leader and the Sunday News Leader, is coordinator of the Newspaper in Education program for area schools and has started a pilot program in the Staunton Public Schools, William J. Walsh (B S information systems) is a programmer/analyst for Heilig-Myers, David E, Wayner (B S business administration and management) is the owner/operator of Wayner Construction Company and is o real estate salesman for G, E, Matthews, Inc. both of Petersburg, Brian E. Workman (B S business administration and management) is o bank card adjuster for the Bank of Virginia. Richmond, Become an active alumnus You may think you have to hove a lot of time or money or live in the Richmond area to become on active alumnus — but you don't. The VCU Alumni Activities Of- fice is looking for alumni support through a host of new programs. If you vi/ould be interested in one or more of the following programs, please complete this form and re- turn it to us. We will send you the information you request. I want to be an active VCU alumnus! Please send me information about n how I can become involved with the board of directors of my college or school n the VCU Internotional Studies Program □ Please update my alumni record □ Please sign me up as a VCU Alumni Ambassador (see pg, 28) Nome Address . City . State . , Zip Code . Home phone I L Employer Major _Wor1< phone i L Title . , Year of graduation . Return to VCU Alumni Activities 828 West Franl<lin Street Rictimond, VA 23284-0001 here and how things began. At the beginning of time, there was light. Light is a symbol of exis- tence and truth. The knowledge of light and its properties may unravel the secrets of the uni- verse. . . . Light warrants study on a symbolic level." In trying to incorporate his interest in light into his new novel entitled A Foolish Fire (it is currently being considered for publication by MacMillan), Alspaugh sets the story in Aurora, North Carolina. He also uses as the central symbol of the novel a bizarre natural occurrence — a nocturnol light. The novel, which Alspaugh describes as basically a humor- ous book that is part love story, part adventure, is as paradoxi- cal as everything else about the writer. Claiming the novel is realistic, still much of it grew out of a dream diary Alspaugh kept between 1977 and 1982. "Many of the situations in the novel came from the dreoms, I'd get up in the middle of the night and start to write. It was the best discipline I'd ever had as a writer. I found a lot of patterns in my dreams, and the novel, at least to me, is about how they interweave. "An artist, too, is a public dreamer. He puts out interpretive public dreams. Dreams are a quest for consciousness. An artist has a vision, an interpretation of existence." Alspaugh, who has given a number of readings in the Richmond area and taught in the Poetry-in-the-Schools pro- gram in Richmond, Virginia Beach, and Harrisonburg in the last few years, reminds one of the stereotypical "starving artist," He has worked a variety of odd jobs in the past several years, none of which has paid very much, so that he can continue to write. He is currently working part time at a Carytown bookstore in Richmond, assisting a friend who builds houses, and reading his work to prisoners and bed-ridden people as part of a year-long grant through the New Virginia Review, "Sharing Our Literar/ Heritage with Confined Virginians." Asked about Richmond's literary scene, Alspaugh said he wished all the writers in the city could manage to get together "Writers are nomadic. I rarely talk in depth with any other .writer There are a mass of them out there that drift around." Alspaugh added that the English department's Master of Fine Arts program, established in 1983 when poet/novelist Dave Smith joined the university, would probably help to bring Rich- mond's writers closer together He thinks that by having an M.F.A. program at VCU, a kind of headquarters for Richmond's literary scene, local writers might interact with one another more than they are doing now. CJ Robert Gdhihium is an editor far the Petersburg Pn)gress-lndex and instructor in English at the university. PhoUi^aphy b;« Chip Mitchell. Class Rings If you did not buy a class ring as a student, you can now order one. Rings for men and women ore available in a variety of sizes. For more information and a price list, write for a ring order kit. If you graduated before 1968, please indicate Medical College of Virginia, if applica- ble, when ordering a kit. Write for the kit — and for information about VCU watches — to VCU Alumni Activities 828 West Franl<lin Street Rictimond, VA 23284-0001 31 VCU BOOKSTORE ^m^, ■i^^:^ ^- ' Decorative glassware, quality fin- isli, beautiful style. Eacti em- bossed with ttie VCU seal: 9 oz. Old Fasliion #818/$2.75 10 oz. Tumbler #812/$2.50 IV2 oz. Stiot glass #2211/$1.79 6 in. Ashtray #800/$4.99 15 oz. Tankard #205/$5.49 Automatic self-opening umbrella. 50-inch spread. 100% nylon, black and gold, embossed with the VCU seal. #7158/$8.99 Stuffed animals. White ram orna- mented with a black and gold VCU ribbon end black felt cape. 8" high. #8/$8.99 Collegiate mug, handsomely trimmed in gold. 4" high, 3V4" dia., 15oz #M155/$8.99 Deluxe feature college mug. tVlul- ticolor seal on a white back- ground. Classic lines, 5'2" high, 3V2" dia., 20 oz. #M204/$14.99 Barclay Sheaks (VCU alumnus ■49) prints, unframed: Ginter House #AA4A Egyptian Building #AA4B Each measures 14'/2" » 12". $25 Notched cylinder ashtray, 7" dia. #AT-20/$9.99 Classic felt pennant. 8" #157/$2.25 24". Polyester and mesh baseball cap with adjustable snap tab back, 2" VCU flocked lettering on front. #308/$4.99 Coffee mug. All time favorite with coffee drinkers. Generous 10 02. size. 33,4" high, 3V4" dia. #DM20/ $4.99 Queen Anne bread and butter plate. An elegant rendering of Ginter House in Welton Arne- tale®. 7" dia. #10Z-0442/$14.99 Tavern mug. Heavy custom crested pewler-look tankard, 43/4" high. 17 oz #166-0812/$19.99 VCU tVlirrors (only lour left): Two of the Egyptian Building on the MCV Campus #AA3A One of Ginter House on the Ac- ademic Campus #AA3B One of the James Branch Ca- bell Library #AA3C These framed mirrors measure 14" X 26" with the pictures in the up- per portion of the mirror measur- ing 11 V2" X 6V2". $140 Rich looking embroidered placket shirt, rib knit cuff, and soft fashion collar Adult sizes S, tvl, L, XL; black and lemon, #052X/ $15.99 Black enamel arm chairs, with VCU seal on the back of the chair and cherry-colored arms. #AA2/$155 VCU men's neckties. Attractive navy background with small gold VCU seals. #AA1/$15 Solid brass key ring engraved with the VCU seal. #5B-K/$3.49 Basic sweat. Comfort makes this 50% cotton, 50% polyester sweat- shirt a year-round favorite. Classic raglan sleeves. Adult sizes S, M, L, XL, fuschia, navy, banana, laven- dar, black, #3051F/$9.99 Chil- dren's sizes 6-8, 10-12, 14-16; navy, #3051F/$7.99 Tackle twill hooded sweatshirt. Letters are cut from colorful tackle twill and sewn on heavyweight fleece of 50% cotton, 50% Careslanii?!. Adult sizes S, M, L, XL; black, #M550/$22.99 Matching sweatpant, #P550/$8.99 Pullover hooded sweatshirt with trim color accented hood lining, sleeve stripes, and raglan piping. Muff styled front pocket. 50% cot- ton, 50% polyester. Adult sizes S, M, L, XL; purple, #799/$19.99 Heavyweight fleece hooded sweatshirt, raglan shoulders, rib knit cuffs and waistband. Muff pocket with reinforced stitching. Adult sizes S, M, L, XL; gold and black on white, or red and navy on white. #798A/$15.99 VCU Campus Bookstore 900 Park Avenue Rictimond, VA 23284-0001 Item # Quantity Description Size Price Total Send orders with desired form of poyment. Returns requesting a ctionge of size or item due to customer error will require on odditionol S2 tiondling chorge. IVIoke criecl< pqyqble to VCU Campus Bookstore, or use credit card. Please ctiorge to my n VISA or n MasterCard Credit Card Number Exp. Date: Mo/Yr If IVIasterCard, enter ttie four digits above your name here Virginia Sales Tax 4% Shipping, tiandling, and insurance 2.00 Tolol $_ Signature Stiip to Nqme Address City State Zip Code 32 ALUMNI TRAVEL The VCU Alumni Activities Office is sponsoring four overseas trips in late summer and fall through its travel program. ocanamavia August 18-30 $1,799 This trip features first-class ac- commodations in Stockholm, Oslo, and Copenhagen. All trip transfers are included, as well as a Scandinavian breakfast each day, five full-course dinners, and four lunches. The tour is by motor- coach and train vi/ith profes- sional guides, and a ride on the Flaam Railvi/ay and an overnight steamer. Priced from Richmond. 5^ Mediterranean Air/Sea Cruise September 4-17 starting at $2,699 The air/sec cruise indue roundtrip airfare from fslew York to Athens, Greece. The cruise stops at several sites in Greece, as well OS Egypt, Israel, and Italy. Specially priced shore excursions also can be arranged. Russia Septem ber 2 7 -October 9 ^ $1,999 Leaving from New York, travelers will tour the cities of Helsinki, Mos- cow, Vladimir, Suzdal, Kiev, and Leningrad. Meals and sightsee- ing are included. London November 23-December 1 $758 Travelers will leave from Rich- mond and spend seven nights in London, an optional meal plan is available. The trip can be ex- tended to Paris and Monte Carlo-Nice. The Paris option in- cludes four nights' accommoda- tions for $344; the Monte Carlo- Nice option, available only if also selecting the Paris option, is three nights for S299. Fen more in/nrmciinm, aimplcle and Ji;lach [/ii.s farm or uTitc to thu VCU Ahtmm Aciwaws Offjct: 828 Wat FmnWin Sirt'c'i, Richmmd. VA 2^284- 000 L I h ^'^''f^4:i'^m^^^Tm^^mymm^:.^f^^^^^^- I I I I I I I I Name_ I VCU Alumni Travel 1985 Please send me more information on the trip(s) checked below; □ Scandinavia □ Mediterranean Air/Sea Cruise □ Russia □ London Address. I City. , State- . Zip Code_ ' Return to I VCU Alumni Activities 828 West Franklin Street Rictimond, VA 23284-0001 veil Magazine VCU Publications 826 West Franklin Street Richmond, VA 23284-0001 ,oT^:^^> Nonprofit Organization U.S. Postage PAID Permit No. 869 Richmond, Virginia ■ < .■5 "During the Second Annual Spring Phonathon, alumni and student volunteer callers brought in pledges totaling $42,659 from alumni across the nation. See page 23.